If you are asked to name famous innovative teachers, founders of your own school or direction, what names will come to mind first? Most likely, these will be practicing teachers of past years, for example, A.S. Makarenko or K.D. Ushinsky. Meanwhile, there are many such bright personalities in the education system today. And among them stands out Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin. Why is he remarkable? And the fact that he is the creator of the "Russian tribal school". But what is it?
Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin: biography
The future teacher was born in one of the villages of the Dagestan SSR in 1944. Having chosen a future professional path and becoming the director of a music school in Kizlyar, he simultaneously graduated from the Pedagogical Institute of the Saratov Region.
Having moved to the Belgorod region and becoming the director of the school, Mikhail Petrovich begins to translate his pedagogical ideas into reality.
A great impetus for the development of his concept was given by work at the research institute of the Soviet Pedagogical Academy of Sciences.
In 1994, in the village of Tekos, Krasnodar Territory, along itsinitiative, an experimental boarding school was established. A significant part of the photos of the teacher Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin, which can be found on the Web, was made precisely within the walls of his offspring. One of them is shown below.
Pedagogical ideas of Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin
Over the years of practical activity in the educational system, he managed to clearly formulate the main postulates of his educational system, the purpose of which is the formation of an integral, systematically thinking, creative personality of the student.
- upbringing should provide maximum freedom for self-development;
- self-development is based on natural inclinations;
- each of us has a lot of opportunities for development;
- each child develops on their own trajectory and at their own pace.
As a teacher, Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin fully shares the ideas of the theory of cooperation. According to this concept, morality is formed on the basis of a way of life, and not instructions. For this, the child needs a special educational environment, the opportunity to work and be creative.
Schetinin Russian School
The image of the created experimental boarding school has some parallels with the school-workshop of Anton Makarenko. The basis of education, according to Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin, is the spiritual and moral development of the student. And the task of the teaching staff is to create conditions for the education of an active independent personality,with the necessary knowledge and skills. The cognitive process is organized in such a way that the student does not “prepare for life”, but “lives” and strives for development himself.
Why is the school named "ancestral"? According to the teacher, the child can draw the necessary potential for comprehensive development precisely in the experience of his ancestors, the memory of his kind. Hence the upbringing of a special respectful and reverent attitude towards parents, pride in one's family.
At the lyceum-boarding school of Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin, several types of programs are being implemented. Among them: educational, musical, choreographic, artistic, labor, sports. In this case, training is conducted according to the “immersion” method (intensive study of a specific subject for a certain time). During the year, students go through 3-4 such immersions with an increasing level of complexity of the material: from simple acquaintance to critical analysis and creative processing.
In this case, there is an alternation of subject, motor, figurative types of classes.
The legacy of the Makarenko system is the priority of mutual learning and collective creativity. Therefore, the educational process is built within the framework of not a classroom system, but groups of different ages. At the same time, each student can choose the pace of work, study without strict assessments and coercion. Teachers actively encourage the research interest of students, their desire to identify interdisciplinary.
Study "with immersion"
Basics of the methodology"immersion", implemented in the Russian school, were incorporated in the pedagogical concepts of Sh. Amonashvili, A. Ukhtomsky. M. Shchetinin considers this practice as a method of concentrated perception of the annual course of study in a short period of time. At the same time, better performing students become teachers' assistants and help their comrades master the course.
The mechanism for "dipping" into an object is as follows:
- Immersion in the subject (gathering a group of interests, choosing the main direction in the study of the topic, perception of information during lectures by famous experts).
- Exit from the "immersion": self-preparation, work in microgroups, identifying teacher assistants and consulting with them, rethinking the material within the group, drawing up basic diagrams and plans.
- The final stage includes tests, pedagogical activities of assistant students, exams at the level of the university program, preparation for admission.
Features of the pedagogical process
In the books of Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin, special attention is paid to the problems of building a system of pedagogical interaction and the teacher's position in this process. In his opinion, the teacher should guide and advise, but not in any way indicate and guide. The director of the boarding school tries to put this principle into practice. The educational process itself is also unusual, in which there are no:
- traditional classes;
- permanent offices;
- traditional textbooks;
- teaching tips;
At the same time, the children actively participate in the economic and organizational life of the school, which, in addition to the usual infrastructure, has a bakery, a bathhouse, workshops, a soy milk production workshop, water wells, and so on. Classes can be held in any of these facilities or outdoors.
Rhythm of school life
Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin, having adopted the ideas of a number of pedagogical schools, developed his own principles, in accordance with which the regime of education in the boarding school is built.
Education is completely free. The entire contingent of the school is divided into pedagogical research and production associations, in the structure of which there are laboratories and lyceums. All these structures together form the Association.
Given the work on the "immersion" system, the rhythm of the study life is very busy. The guys wake up at 5 in the morning, do physical training, then have breakfast and start training. Classes are complex, include an educational component, dances, sports exercises. This is followed by lunch, a break for an hour, then the guys start working in workshops, workshops, etc. After dinner, students are given free time, at 10 pm the end is announced. During their studies, the guys receive a basic education and a working speci alty (cook, seamstress, builder, etc.), acquire self-defense and creative skills.
This educational regime does not include holidays and weekends. Meetings with parents are held infrequently (several times a year). Therefore, upon admission, eachthe student is assigned a trial adaptation period.
Opinions for and against
Given the specificity of some ideas and the format of teaching, Mikhail Petrovich's pedagogical activity sometimes receives an ambiguous assessment from colleagues. Some even see signs of a totalitarian system in the boarding school system and do not consider this format useful for the development of students. For the same reason, photos of Mikhail Petrovich Shchetinin can be found in the press along with rather catchy headlines and comments.
But there is also a camp of ardent supporters of this teacher's system. It is enough to cite as an example the competition for admission to a boarding school, when the number of applicants exceeds the number of places by three or four times. Children from different regions of the Russian Federation come here.
Mikhail Shchetinin's pedagogical system has been recognized three times by UNESCO as one of the best in the world. The boarding school closely cooperates with the Roerich Center and also receives support from Shalva Amonashvili.
Such an extraordinary educational phenomenon cannot but arouse interest.