Moscow Criminal Investigation (MCC) - the police department for the city of Moscow, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire. He received this name in 1881, and wore it until 1917. Subsequently, the ICC became known as the MUR. His responsibility included the production of inquiry and disclosure of crimes related to the concept of criminal, as well as the search for those who committed or were involved in the crime, and missing residents.
History of occurrence
The Moscow Criminal Investigation Department appeared in the middle of the 19th century. Researchers tend to attribute its origin to the early period of Russia. For the first time, the words "detective" and "detective" appeared in the era of the emergence of the Russian centralized state in the XV-XVII centuries. The very concept and norms of its implementation were defined at the level of laws. They were set out in the Code of Laws, and later in the Council Code of 1649. It is interesting that the concept of "detective" included three functions: the search for a criminal,investigation and trial with the use of torture. Understanding the hierarchy of detective positions is not easy enough.
In Moscow and its county, Zemsky Prikaz was engaged in detective work, the staff of which included okolnichy, clerks, clerks and all sorts of acolytes. In the rest of the country, search, investigation and trial were carried out by labial institutions, which were headed by labial elders. In addition to them, the guards who were subordinate to them, who guarded the prisons, executioners and heralds (biryuchi), who announced the decisions of the labial institutions, and other decrees, were involved in the investigation. They were assisted by military commanders (sotsky, fifties).
All labial huts were subordinated to and coordinated by the Rogue Order, which was located in Moscow. In addition, the investigation was carried out by representatives of the central government, governors, volostels, service people: bailiffs, allotters, searchers (those who conducted searches). The history of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Stores information on how investigative actions were carried out in those distant times. The detective methods then were:
- Flaming. Convicting a person of repeatedly committed crimes.
- Search. Questioning the population of the entire neighborhood about the identity of the suspect.
- Confrontation. Elimination of contradictions in obtaining data about a crime, a criminal.
- Experience. Torture of a suspect in order to obtain a confession. Was the main method of investigation.
Probably the list of methods hasn't changed much since then. Names are stillhave undergone some changes, additional methods of investigation have appeared, but the main list has remained unchanged.
Under Peter I, regular police were formed and the positions of fiscals were established - secret overseers for the conduct of all affairs. In 1729, the Investigative Order was created in Moscow, which became the prototype of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department, in St. Petersburg a central body was formed - the Investigative Expedition.
The duties of the Detective Order included the following actions. After filing a petition (request, statement) or denunciation, the authorities gave instructions to the informer (investigator). He began to collect information on this case. They drew up an order that contained information about where the criminal was, where the stolen goods were stored, etc. The order was handed over to the clerk of the Detective Order, who, with a military team in the presence of attesting witnesses (devious), carried out the journey (detention). In 1763, the Investigative Order was abolished, and the Investigative Expedition was formed at the provincial office.
19th century reforms
An important step in the reforms was the formation in 1802 of the Ministry of the Interior. But the most important thing was the withdrawal, in 1860, of judicial and investigative functions from the subordination of the police. She conducted only an inquiry on committed criminal offenses and detention. These actions in the cities were performed by city guards and bailiffs. In the counties, these duties were charged to bailiffs, foremen of the volost, and in the villages - to the elders. In 1864the Charter of Criminal Proceedings is adopted, which reflects all the rules for conducting criminal cases.
Establishment of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department (MCC)
On the basis of the adopted Charter, the competence of the police included an inquiry, which was supposed to collect all the information through the search, questioning of witnesses and surveillance, conducted behind the scenes. For this purpose, for the first time in Russia, specialized police units were to be created, the competence of which was charged with the disclosure of criminal offenses and the conduct of an inquiry. In 1881, as part of the reforms carried out, criminal investigation departments were formed. As an independent organization, part of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department appeared in 1908, after the adoption by the State Duma of the Russian Empire of the law on parts of the US.
Duties of a criminal investigation
The newly formed detective departments were entrusted with the task of conducting the inquiry procedure, which included:
- Collecting evidence (evidence).
- Search and detention of persons suspected of involvement in the commission of criminal offenses.
- Creating an undercover network in an organized crime environment.
- At the request of the bailiffs, the execution of a number of specific measures.
- Recording, which included file cabinets with fingerprints.
The methods of work of the Moscow Criminal Investigation Department, like all the actions of police officers, were strictly regulated by legal documents and laws. In particular, the use of weapons should have beencarried out according to special rules. In this form, the units existed until 1917.
Why are policemen called "garbage"?
This is probably of interest to many, where did the name "garbage" come from. The Moscow Criminal Investigation Service had the abbreviation ICC. In 1908, one of the talented Russian detectives A.F. Koshko. He managed to organize the work of the department in such a way that in the shortest possible time it becomes the best in Russia. There is such a version that it was Moscow detectives who began to be called "garbage" at that time.
Although there are other versions. For example, that this word comes from the Hebrew word "muser", which means an informer, a spy. Since secret agents also worked in the ICC, they began to be called in Russian “garbage”. How true this is, probably no one can say.