All cases of aircraft accidents in the era of Soviet times were classified. On October 13, 1972, a passenger liner Il-62 crashed near Moscow (the shore of Lake Nerskoy). Catastrophes of this magnitude have rarely happened in the world. It was an international flight Paris - Leningrad - Moscow.
The story of the crash "Il-62" in 1972
There are two versions of the landing in the northern capital:
- Sheremetyevo (Moscow) was closed due to weather conditions, the crew was sent to the Shosseinaya airfield in Leningrad.
- Scheduled landing in Leningrad with a further domestic flight to Moscow, as those who bought a ticket to Moscow got on board. The coffin with the ashes of the composer A. Glazunov also arrived in Leningrad from Paris on this flight.
Then the liner flew to the capital, rising to a height of 9000 m. The crew in working order kept in touch withdispatcher, took instructions according to the route of movement. At an altitude of 3700 m, Savelovo was passed and permission was obtained for further descent. Several times the crew commander contacted the air traffic control service to confirm the altitude and coordinates. The last radio contact with the aircraft was at an altitude of 750 m. After that, the crew team did not get in touch. At an altitude of 400 m, the mark on the radar monitors disappeared.
The plane, turning, rolled to the right, crashed into the surface with its wing. First, the wing console collapsed from the collision, then the nose of the fuselage collided with the ground. The plane swept through the field for about 330 m and crashed into a forest belt, through which it slipped until it was completely destroyed about 200 m. All 174 people on board were killed.
At that time it was the largest air crash in the world in terms of the number of victims. Today, the Il-6 crash in 1972 is the 2nd largest in the world among those that occurred with this aircraft model, in Russia the 2nd after the Tu-154 crash in Omsk in terms of the number of deaths.
According to experts, before the collision with the surface, all systems were in a functional state. The weather factor could not have caused the accident. There were the usual indicators:
- 1, 5 thousand meters of horizontal visibility with light wind, air temperature +6 °С.
- The aircraft is equipped with an autopilot system, which made it possible to carry out the landing approach automatically.
According to the flight recorder, for 34sec before the crash, the speed was 560 km / h, up to an altitude of 740-600 m, maneuvering actions corresponded to the established norms and rules of flight. Then, for an unknown reason, the crew did not take action to prevent a collision.
A number of violations in dispatching work was discovered, a discrepancy between the barometer data, which could not serve as a basis for the fall of the Il-62. Catastrophe with such indicators could have been avoided.
The alleged causes of the tragedy
There are several assumptions about the causes of the disaster:
- For some reason, the normal mental and physical state of the crew was disturbed.
- Partial failure in the control system, but according to the black box, minor deviations of the elevator could not lead to a complete loss of control.
Consequently, it is impossible to draw exact conclusions about the causes of one of the largest Il-62 disasters in the entire history of not only Russian, but also global air travel.
Historical loss analysis
A total of 286 machines were built, the very first crashed in the test phase. According to statistics, the other causes of accidents with the crash of an aircraft of this model are as follows:
1. 48% - human factor (errors of personnel). Most of the accidents occurred due to premature descent or ended with the car being off the runway:
- 20.07.1975 in the regionDamascus hit the ground "Il-62", the disaster could not be avoided due to the rapid decline.
- 27.05.1977, Havana, in dense fog, the car fell below the permissible level, hitting a power line, collided with the ground.
- 1.07.1983, Labe, the liner crashed into a mountain.
- 30.06.1990, Yakutsk, late recognition of the error, the aircraft ran off the runway, crashed.
- 1990-21-11, village of Magan (Yakutsk), the pilots were not ready to land on a snowy runway, the plane rolled out into a ravine and collapsed.
- 23.10.2002, Bishkek, takeoff error, the plane collided with a concrete fence.
- 29.03.2006, Domodedovo (Moscow), went off the runway, broke into several pieces.
- 24.07.2009, Mashhad, landing at high speeds, collision with lights, departure of the car from the runway, crashed into the airfield fence and power poles.
2. 42% - reasons for the failure of aircraft systems:
- 14.03.1980, Warsaw, landing gear failure, crew report on approach to 2nd circle, electrical equipment damaged, causing crash.
- 6.07.1982, Sheremetyevo, after takeoff at 160 m, the fire alarm of the 1st, then the 2nd engines went off, the crew decided to return to the airfield. Despite following instructions, the plane hit the ground.
- 05/9/1987, Warsaw region, at an altitude of 8 thousand meters, a turbine collapsed, the fuselage and electrical equipment systems were damaged. At an altitude of about 1.5 thousand meters lost control, there was a collision with the surface.
- 20.04.2008city, Santo Domingo, during the landing approach, the 2nd engine collapsed, damage to the fuel system and the 1st engine by debris, fire. Emergency landing made.
- 1982-09-29, Luxembourg, control system failure, aircraft skidded off runway, burned out.
- 17.07.1989, Berlin, due to poor handling, the plane went off the runway, collided with an obstacle, burned out.
- 1972-14-08, Koenigswüster, after taking off at an altitude of 8,9 thousand meters, there was a control problem, the crew began to descend, fuel was drained, a fire broke out in the tail section, a complete loss of control.
3. 5% - impact of external factors:
- 1989-03-09 Havana, aircraft caught in downdraft of heavy rain, falling on residential buildings.
- 1972-13-10, Sheremetyevo, due to bad weather conditions, there was a collision with the ground
4. 5% - the causes of the incidents are not established.
"IL-62" met the criteria for a flight over long distances, was created taking into account international standards of this class. But tragedies still could not be avoided. With the heaviest losses, there were two crashes of the Il-62 - a disaster near Moscow in 1972 (174 deaths) and in 1987 near Warsaw (183 people).