With the advent of the first vehicles, people realized the importance of following the rules of the road. Even Peter I in 1718 gave instructions to create the Main Police. The function of ensuring road safety was entrusted to the employees of this body.
Later, already in 1883, each policeman had a special instruction that described the requirements for vehicles. It clearly stipulated how fast one could move around Moscow, where and how one could overtake other vehicles.
History of the traffic police of the USSR
With the formation of a new state - the USSR, in 1922, Orders were issued that obligated all representatives of the Workers 'and Peasants' Militia to learn the rules of traffic, regulate it on the road with a baton. Since 1924, the functions of future employees of the traffic police of the USSR began to be assigned to district and volost policemen. They established control over traffic on the roads and compliance with traffic rules.
But there were more vehicles, and ordinary policemen could notto cope with such vast responsibilities. First, in 1925, by decree of the Presidium of the Moscow City Council, a department was created that was responsible for regulating traffic on the streets of Moscow. And already in 1928, a separate position appeared among the employees of the city police - an inspector for traffic regulation.
In the 30s, special units were created. These were already completely separate police units, which were engaged exclusively in auto and motorcycle transport.
Foundation of traffic police
In November 1934, the State Automobile Inspectorate (GAI of the USSR) was created, which existed under TsUDorTrans. Such a structure existed in all large places where a sufficiently large number of cars were present on the roads. Instructions were given to the policemen. They had to not only monitor the quality of traffic on the roads, but also fight against the misuse of transport in various departments of the Soviet Union.
But the real birthday of the traffic police of the USSR is July 3, 1936. It was on this day that Decree No. 1182 was issued under the title "Regulations on the State Automobile Inspectorate of the Main Directorate of the Workers' and Peasants' Militia of the NKVD of the USSR." Broader goals and objectives were set before the employees of this service.
They had to control the training and work of drivers, the rules for operating vehicles, to actively fight against violators of traffic rules and accidents on the streets of cities. Previously, this was done by the police, who only participated intraffic regulation. Until the 1950s, traffic controllers were not part of the traffic police of the USSR. At the time of the formation of the service, there were only 7 branches. The number of employees of the traffic police was only 57 employees.
In 1940, a division of the State Automobile Inspectorate developed a system for the necessary organization of traffic on the road, releasing the Rules of the Road. In the same period, the rules for accounting for the country's cars and for conducting a technical inspection were issued. The traffic police of the USSR, in addition to organizing safe traffic on the roads, had to control the condition of roads and streets in cities and between them, decide where there is a need to put signs on the road, apply the necessary markings.
traffic police during the war years
With the beginning of the most difficult period in the life of the country, many employees of the service voluntarily went to the ranks of the defenders of the Motherland from the Nazis. Most of them never returned home after the fighting, they died the death of the brave. Those employees who remained at their post helped the army as much as they could. They mobilized equipment for the needs of the front, built defensive structures, military dugouts.
The trained staff of professional drivers for the army was constantly updated. The traffic police officers especially distinguished themselves during the evacuation of residents from the besieged Leningrad surrounded by the Germans and the delivery of such necessary products to people. On the roads at that time, traffic control was carried out by battery traffic lights, which had a directional light only forward, which servedcamouflage during enemy raids.
After the victory in the Great Patriotic War, many returned to the police. GAI of the USSR resumed its work, while participating in the restoration work. After all, most of the roads were actually destroyed.
With the development of science and technology, the inspection began to apply scientific methods of work. The use of radar speed meters has been introduced. The service staff included patrol helicopters and patrol ambulances. A decree has come into force allowing the removal of driver's licenses from drivers who drive while intoxicated. In the 70s, research laboratories began to be created to study the problems of traffic safety on the roads.
Transport traffic police
For the organization of control on the roads, the inspectors were allocated good and powerful cars capable of participating in the pursuit of the offender. At that time, such cars of the GAI of the USSR as Pobeda, GAZ-21 were popular, later newer models appeared at the disposal of employees - VAZ-2106, 2107, 2109 and GAZ-24. It was convenient for traffic police officers to travel on motorcycles. Used model "Ural". This is a fast tricycle with a sidecar.
You could also see other vehicles - helicopters, buses, minibuses "Latvia".
Militia service has always been considered dangerous and difficult. It was necessary to be on duty at the post both in the heat and in the cold, during the day and dark nights. Many workersroad police, performing their duty, found themselves under the bullets of bandits or were shot down on the road while on duty.
Monuments to the fallen employees of the traffic police of the USSR (photo above) can be seen in almost every city.