Mountains of the Khibiny. Location on the map, height and photo

Table of contents:

Mountains of the Khibiny. Location on the map, height and photo
Mountains of the Khibiny. Location on the map, height and photo
Anonim

Khibiny is a mountain system that has attracted researchers and nature lovers since ancient times. They are not as inaccessible as other areas. You can reach the mountains by car. Or another option is to get to Murmansk by plane or train.

Location and relief

The Khibiny Mountains are located on the Kola Peninsula between Lake Imandra and Umbozero. They are an array consisting of plateau-like peaks. The highest point is 1201 m. This is Mount Yudychvumchorr, which is part of the Khibiny massif. The height of the mountains averages 1000 meters.

There are many traces of ancient glacial activity. This is evidenced by such landforms as circuses and kars. And also troughs - valleys plowed by a glacier, similar to troughs.

There are results of permafrost activity - kurums, the so-called stone rivers. And on the plateau there are whole stone seas.

Khibiny mountains

Geological structure

The Khibiny Mountains are a crystallinestructure - intrusion. This is an integral geological body composed of rocks of igneous origin. There are only 8 such intrusions in the world. This massif, shaped like a horseshoe, is mostly composed of rocks - nepheline syenites. In ancient times, there were huge volcanoes that cooled down, and the magma crystallized. Therefore, about 800 different minerals have been found here. Some of them are specific to this territory.

The names of modern settlements correspond to the minerals found here: Nepheline sands, Apatity, Titan. After the descent of a heavy glacial shell from these mountains, this territory experienced tectonic uplift. It occurred unevenly, as evidenced by the nature of geological structures. They look like funnels, the edges of which are composed of older rocks than the center. For about 20 million years, the Khibiny rose 500 meters above the surrounding plains. Then there was a long break of 15 million years. Then the mountains began to grow again, this time their height doubled.

Climate

Climatic conditions, depending on the geographical location, have the Khibiny mountains. On the map of the North-West in the European part of Russia, you can see that most of the peninsula is located above the Arctic Circle. Despite this fact, the climate here is much warmer than in other regions of the Far North. The severity of the local weather is smoothed out by the proximity of the Barents Sea, since the North Cape warm current enters this part of the ocean. Therefore, the climate here is quite mild, and severe frosts are relativelyrare.

Khibiny mountains, photo

Due to the location of the Khibiny in the Arctic, twilight reigns here for half a year. In winter daylight is very small and lasts 2-3 hours. The polar night lasts about four months - the period when the sun does not rise from the horizon. And because of the proximity to the magnetic pole of the planet, you can observe a very impressive phenomenon - the northern lights.

Summer lasts two and a half months. The highest positive temperatures are +20 in July. The average for the month is +13 degrees. The coldest period lasts during January. The average temperature of the month is -11 degrees. And the Khibiny mountains have the most negative mark in winter -35 0С. Photos of these places show that there are often fogs and high clouds. This indicates the influence of cyclones on the territory. Most of the precipitation falls as snow.

Flora

Vegetation cover consists of several belts. The zone of coniferous and mixed forests is located mainly at the foot of the mountains and in river valleys at low altitudes. This belt ends at a height of 470 meters and occupies a third of the massif. It is dominated by spruce and birch. In the forest you can find mountain ash, aspen and bird cherry.

The zone of subalpine birch forests begins above. It stretches in a narrow strip between the forest and tundra belts. A dwarf birch, a bathing suit, a geranium, a calendula grows here.

Khibiny mountain height

Next comes the mountain-tundra zone. It occupies about half of the entire area of ​​the Khibiny Mountains. Below, dwarf shrub vegetation is common. Continues in early Augustberry period. Blueberries, blueberries, cloudberries ripen. At the beginning of autumn, it's time for lingonberries. Above is the moss-lichen tundra. Mosses here are dominated by green and sphagnum mosses. Lichens cover large boulders of stone rivers. Many plants included in the Red Book grow here.

Toponymy of names

The indigenous people in the Khibiny region are the Saami. On the map of these mountains there are entirely names in the language of this people. However, their meanings are different. Since the language of the Sami of the Kola Peninsula has several dialects.

One of the versions of the origin of the name of the mountains from the word "khiben" - a flat hill. The Saami conditionally divided the Khibiny mountains into two parts: Umbozersky and Lavozersky. The first in their language sounded like Umptek, the second - Luyavrurt.

Khibiny mountains on the map

The Saami first came up with the name of the river, and then the valley was named from it. And then the ridges were indicated. The first part of the word is a sign of an object (high, rocky). The second denoted a geographical object (mountain, river, lake). For example, Lake Woodyavr. Wood is a hill covered with shrubs. The root of the javr is a lake. Thus, the Saami gave simple descriptions of objects. Among them is Woodyavr - a lake on a hill with bushes.

The Khibiny Mountains are a wonderful land that you really want to visit. This is a unique place where mountains, tundra, many lakes with clear water and northern lights are combined. Khibiny is rightly called a treasury of minerals.

Popular topic