The current stage of development of our country imposes completely new requirements on the quality of educational and upbringing processes in preschool institutions. This concerns not only the choice of the main forms and methods of working with children aged from two months to seven years, but also the creation of conditions for their most comfortable entry into society.
Preschool educational institutions have experienced major changes in recent years, which are associated with a whole group of factors. Firstly, market relations are increasingly entering the educational environment, which is expressed, in particular, in the development of competition not only between individual institutions, but also between didactic and educational concepts. Secondly, against the background of the constant increase in the requirements for it from the state and parents, the preschool institution faced obvious underfunding, which led to a significant formalization of the educational process itself.
Third, an increasingly active role in supervising kindergartensthe parent community begins to play. At the same time, an acute shortage of institutions of this type in the country has led educators to use this argument as a tool to influence particularly principled fathers and mothers. Finally, fourthly, in the light of recent changes related to the adoption of the new Law on Education, kindergartens have finally turned from a predominantly educational structure into full-fledged preschool institutions with an educational program.
The new law and the by-laws adopted in addition to it have taken a new approach to the main activities of various types of kindergartens. A preschool institution in its activities must be guided by the basic norms of Russian legislation, as well as the provisions of the State Standard in this area. The main goals of this level of education are:
- paying close attention to children's physical and mental he alth;
- focus on maximizing the physical, aesthetic and social abilities of pupils;
- accounting for the individual characteristics of children;
- upbringing in the spirit of patriotism, instilling respect for family values, cultural traditions and customs of Russia, love for nature;
- correction of deficiencies in the mental and physical development of the child;
- establishing interaction with all major social partners - families, government and public institutions.
Preschoolexists in our country in several basic forms. The most common type is the kindergarten, which implements a standard educational program that meets the basic requirements for preschool education and upbringing of children. In addition, there are such types of institutions as kindergarten care and rehabilitation, combined kindergartens, child development centers. Their features are directly related to the contingent they are called upon to educate and educate.
Thus, the preschool institution plays a crucial role in the socialization of the child's personality. It is here, along with the family, that the basic qualities of a citizen are laid down, his ideas about the cultural and social traditions of society are formed.