World politics is a delicate matter that is not easy to control even the leaders of countries. Very often we become witnesses or participants in state conflicts that occur within the country and abroad. One such confrontation was the Cold War.
What is this?
Before you can figure out who won the Cold War, you have to find out what it is. The Cold War is not a specific event that took place in world history. Often this political science term is used to describe a global confrontation that affects geopolitics, military, economic and ideological spheres.
But the most popular such conflict was the Cold War between the two blocs of states, the instigators of which were the US and the USSR. Almost 30 years have passed since the end of this conflict, but some still do not understand whether the USSR or the USA won the Cold War.
Details of the conflict
Specifically, this Cold War has dates for the beginning and end of the conflict: March 5, 1946 and November 21, 1990of the year. This event covered almost the entire world. The reason for the confrontation was the ideological and political disagreement between the two blocs. The confrontation between the capitalist and socialist models was especially observed.
The conflict ended, perhaps in the most unexpected way, which, however, was justified by a number of events.
How did it all start?
Before finding out who won the Cold War and why, it's worth dealing with the historical details that have become key in this struggle for supremacy.
The cause of the Cold War was another war - World War II. It was after her that the USSR began to actively control the countries of Eastern Europe. At some point, the US and UK felt threatened by the pro-Soviet government.
At the same time, many Soviet political scientists argued that US foreign policy with its imperialism was purposefully fomenting conflicts. Monopoly circles were especially interested in this. It was extremely important to preserve the capitalist system.
The prerequisites for a "cold" confrontation were noticed even after the Y alta conference. From that moment, the division of territories and vague claims began. The heads of state began to boast of their strength and power. For example, in August 1945, Truman hinted to Stalin that the Americans had developed a terrible weapon. A few days later, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place.
These events unequivocally pushed for the race of nuclearweapons. There is evidence that Eisenhower was instructed to develop the Totality plan, which involved dropping 20-30 nuclear bombs on Soviet cities. After the USSR refused to withdraw the occupying troops from Iran on March 5, 1946, Churchill decided to start the Cold War. It is his speech that is considered the beginning of the conflict, since it was followed by Stalin's reaction. The head of the USSR put Churchill on a par with Hitler and suggested that the words of the former Prime Minister of Great Britain were a call to war.
Then it was still unclear whether the USSR could win the Cold War, because the events developed at lightning speed. Conflict after conflict led to more aggression and action.
Another key event in this story was the "long telegram". This was the name of message No. 511, which was created by the US Deputy Ambassador to Moscow, Kennan. The diplomat was sure that only force could deal with the leadership of the USSR, so it was extremely important to stop cooperation and resist expansion.
The telegram was written so competently and convincingly that in the USA all its postulates were accepted as true. After this event, George Kennan began to be called the "architect of the cold war."
To trace all the historical details and understand who won the Cold War, you have to go to the very beginning of the action.
In March 1947, the US decides to offer its military and economic assistance to Greece and Turkey. The USSR at the same time refusesthe Marshall Plan, which entails a series of events: the inclusion of West Berlin in the plan, its transport blockade from the USSR, the announcement of Yakov Lomakin persona non grata, the closure of the embassies of the Soviet Union in New York and San Francisco.
The main task of the USSR in this struggle was the elimination of the US monopoly on the possession of nuclear weapons. So scientists began developing bombs. Already in 1949, the first tests were carried out. This shook the confidence of the US government, which was confident in its global dominance through monopoly.
In April 1949, NATO was created, and the FRG was included in the Western European Union. Naturally, such an event could not please the government of the USSR. In order to maintain their positions, repressions are intensifying against dissidents who allegedly bowed to the West. The most acute period of the Cold War is considered to be the years of the Korean War.
Then it was not yet clear which side won the Cold War. But already in 1953, the so-called Khrushchev “thaw” began. So they began to call the period after the death of Stalin and the beginning of the work of Nikita Khrushchev. The thaw also came in the Cold War, so the threat of a world war was stopped for a while.
In 1955, the Warsaw Pact entered into force. It united the European socialist states into a military alliance. Khrushchev tried in every possible way to improve relations between the USSR and the USA, so the first of the leaders went to the USA in 1959. Upon arrival, he seemed inspired and even held a rally talking about Eisenhower, his wisdom and honesty.
Despite the fact that the USSR under Khrushchev's rule seemed loyal, in fact, not the most peaceful events took place in the world: the uprising in Hungary, the Suez and the Caribbean crisis, etc.
Soviet bomber aircraft grew, and the United States created an air defense system around major cities. And one and the other understood that it would be possible to relax only when they had an advantage over each other. For a long time, the US believed that as long as they were outnumbered, there was no reason to worry. In addition, after the war, the resources of the Soviet Union were significantly depleted, which means that it was not capable of retaliation.
But already in 1957, an intercontinental ballistic missile appeared, which could fly from the USSR to the USA, and its mass production was also launched. A new aggravation was not long in coming, starting with a scandal with an American spy plane. And then it was supplemented with a test of the Tsar Bomba thermonuclear bomb.
Trying to mend relationships
Who won the Cold War, it was too early to decide, but NATO began to lose its strength. France withdrew from it, and after the disaster over Palomares, Spain limited the military activities of the US Air Force on the territory of the state. At the same time, the Moscow Treaty was concluded between the FRG and the USSR. In 1968, the Prague Spring was interrupted by the military intervention of the USSR.
Brezhnev also launched a "detente of international tension." Thanks to her, a number of joint projects with America followed.events. At that time, it was clear that the USSR was experiencing a shortage in terms of purchases of consumer goods and food.
But the United States continued to increase its military power, so the Soviet Union needed to stay on par.
Again, it was not clear who won the Cold War, because it never ended. New confrontations arose due to the entry of Soviet troops into Afghanistan. The West immediately took this move as interference in geopolitics.
USA launched the production of neutron weapons in order to prepare as much as possible for a possible reflection of aggression. In 1981, the RYAN operation began. The following year, they conducted exercises with the countries of the Warsaw Pact. Two years later, Ronald Reagan, US President, spoke out against the USSR, calling it the "Evil Empire".
In the fall of 1983, a tragedy occurred in which Soviet air defense shot down a South Korean civilian airliner, killing 270 people.
Active resistance and another decline
Yuri Andropov spoke about the maximum readiness for military operations, while in the United States it was decided to place weapons on the territory of Western Europe. They also proclaimed the Reagan Doctrine, which supported anti-communist and anti-Soviet insurgent organizations. Thus, the United States supported the parties to the conflicts in Nicaragua, Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Ethiopia, etc.
The appearance of Gorbachev again changed the state's course towards America. Despite severaldiplomatic scandals, the head of the USSR chose the path of "détente" and put forward peace initiatives.
To calm the soul in Geneva in 1985, a document was signed by Gorbachev and Reagan, which prohibited nuclear war, but in fact did not oblige anyone to anything. Already in 1986, it was decided to launch a nuclear disarmament program. Much has also been done to resolve the acute situation in Afghanistan.
The main reason for the end of the Cold War was the change in the political course of the Soviet Union. And since it was ideology and politics that were the driving force, the conflict began to subside. A political process was launched to abandon the communist ideology. The USSR also planned to stop depending on Western technologies and loans.
Even then, many believed that the US had won the Cold War. But the actions of the heads of state continued. Gorbachev, meanwhile, began the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Already in the late 1980s, there was a clear position of abandoning the Brezhnev Doctrine. The new head has done a lot to promote "new thinking". The Soviet bloc was liquidated, and here one could actually talk about the end of the Cold War.
At that time, the representative of the government of the GDR, Schabowski, spoke about the new rules for entering and leaving the country. By evening, hundreds of East Germans went to the border to forget about the Berlin Wall forever. And although it still stands, it remains only a symbol of the past.
The final point in the coldwar was the Charter for a New Europe, which was signed on November 21, 1990. She ended the confrontation between socialism and communism, promoting democracy, peace and unity.
Victory and defeat
Many confidently say that America won the Cold War, although no one mentions the tragic defeat of the USSR. It is difficult to judge in this way, since the event itself is not a classic manifestation of war in the international legal sense. And, perhaps, it is not so important who lost, it is more important what both states ended up with.
Some historians have calculated America's military costs in this confrontation. According to some sources, during the entire period of the Cold War, the United States spent 8 trillion dollars. There is information that both the US and the USSR, at the height of the conflict, thought about a possible attack every day, so they spent 50 million dollars on creating weapons every day.
Some believe that the USSR lost, if only because at the end of the conflict they dramatically changed their views on politics and ideology. And the collapse of the Union is difficult to recognize as a victory. Nevertheless, since neither a peace treaty nor a document of surrender was signed, it is essentially impossible to recognize the defeat or victory of one side or another.
Who will win the New Cold War is still hard to guess. A new confrontation began relatively recently, but formally the conflict was launched after the events in Ukraine in 2013-2014. So two camps have already formed: Russia and China against the US, EU and NATO.
This time the situation does notis not connected with ideology, since in the current modern situation there can be no such confrontations. That is why many still refuse to accept the New Cold War. But as practice and history show, both sides will still suffer as a result.