What is personnel policy? Personnel policy: essence, concept, types, main directions and characteristics

Table of contents:

What is personnel policy? Personnel policy: essence, concept, types, main directions and characteristics
What is personnel policy? Personnel policy: essence, concept, types, main directions and characteristics

Currently, human capital is regarded as one of the main assets of a modern company. Continuous investment in the development of human resources is beneficial and brings many benefits and profits to the company. Thanks to this approach, the field of human resource management is increasingly developing, defining the goals, methods and tasks that modern organizations face.

The relevance of the study of this area of ​​activity of modern organizations lies in the fact that in Russian conditions one of the factors of the competitiveness and survival of the company is to ensure the high quality of human resources, which can be carried out through the implementation of a rational personnel policy.

personnel policy essence of personnel policy


Personnel policy is one of the elements of the company's strategy, which consists of the procedures and practices of working with the company's personnel. It must meet the needs, ambitionsand professional aspirations in achieving the goals and objectives of the enterprise.

Personnel policy is a term used interchangeably with the term "personnel management". The essence of the organization's personnel policy lies in the fact that this concept is at the same time an important element of the entire enterprise management system, that is, a set of interrelated components consisting of the following subsystems: selection of employees for jobs, their assessment, adaptation and training, promotion, remuneration, organization and management of employees, social activity and social security. It is necessary to adapt the personnel policy to the management system that has developed in a particular company, since it remains closely connected with it.


The concept and essence of the organization's personnel policy is a system of rules and norms that must be understood and set out in a certain way. They bring the human resource in line with the overall plan of the company. From this it turns out that all activities for working with personnel (selection, staffing, certification, training, promotion) are planned in advance and agreed with the overall vision of the tasks and goals of the organization.

The essence of the organization's personnel policy is that it is focused on bringing human resources in line with the goals and tactics of the development of the entire company. Those industrial processes that take place in the organization require specific staffing. Personnel management is designed to provide the human resource that is needed fornormal operation of the organization.

the essence of the state personnel policy

Genesis of Development

The genesis of the concept of personnel policy should be considered in the context of the functions of personnel management in the company.

Before World War II, this concept was more associated with social benefits. Over the years, the concept of personnel policy has been significantly expanded. In the 1940s and 50s of the twentieth century, the company's personnel developed rapidly. Its management responsibilities included the functions of recruiting, selecting, training new employees and managing remuneration. At the same time, there has been an increase in the number of specialists involved in in-company training, job evaluation and employment planning. Since that time, we can talk about the development of the personnel function, that is, all types of activities related to the functioning of people in the enterprise.

The main stages in the development of the concept of personnel policy and the essence of personnel policy are as follows:

  • pre-industrial era - the period of creators who were engaged in such activities: hunting, warehousing, making clothes, agriculture, mining, metalworking, construction, trade, crafts;
  • industrial age - period of specialists - the development of industry, mass production, the creation of many easy-to-learn work organizational structures, permanent jobs, job evaluation, labor costs, labor relations, wages based on working hours;
  • the era of the post-industrial period - the period of joint work of staff- creation of flexible production systems, use of information systems, organization, restructuring, reengineering, service development, customer orientation, personnel strategies, multitasking, flexible forms of employment and remuneration, group forms of work, audit, outsourcing, employment, coaching, intellectual capital, knowledge management.

In the 80s, trade unions began to appear, whose activities were aimed at representing workers and taking care of their correct interpersonal relations with employers. Much attention in the framework of their activities is paid to advanced training programs, as well as systems for motivating and evaluating employees.

The 1990s saw the gradual dominance of teamwork and a sense of purpose that was essential for the proper functioning of a company. The process of standardization of training systems in connection with the mergers of enterprises continues.

the essence of the personnel policy of the organization


The essence and role of personnel policy in an organization at the present stage of entrepreneurship development is enormous.

In practice, personnel policy, like a living organism, is sensitive to changes that occur in the company. The need to implement an intensive and targeted personnel policy has been fully recognized in countries with market economies.

The prerequisite for this was the formation of system management as an opportunity for the emergence of a new model of human resource management.

The management of most companies and firms is notcompletely forms the need and role of the personnel policy. And it is of great importance also because it is aimed at developing human resources. This type of management is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of technologies for managing the organization's personnel. The compliance of the personnel strategy with the general development plan of the company is recognized as fundamental.

The increase in the role of personnel policy in Russian organizations is caused by fundamental changes in the social and financial criteria in which they now operate. But the personnel management of Russian companies is reduced mainly to the hiring and dismissal of employees, the preparation of personnel documentation, and this is not enough for the effective implementation of commercial activities in modern conditions.


The functions of personnel policy and the essence of personnel policy are closely interconnected with each other.

Among the main functions are the following:

  • The planning function requires forecasting factors that may have an impact on the organization's activities, prepares appropriate methods of influencing them.
  • The organizational function includes a sequence of preparatory activities for the implementation of planned tasks. The role of the manager here is to create an organizational structure that, taking into account the data obtained as a result of the completed planning activities, will contribute to the achievement of the set goals.
  • The control function includes actions that consist in comparing the actual parameter withaccepted model.
concept and essence of personnel policy

Main goals

Personnel policy, like any other, is a confident, endless process of flexible change in goals, abilities and skills. The selection of the appropriate employees necessary to carry out the main functions of the company can be considered as the basic goals of personnel management.

The essence and objectives of the personnel policy are presented below.

The first goal requires the following criteria to be met:

  • definition of quantitative and qualitative needs in the field of labor resources;
  • competent selection and hiring of employees;
  • competence management of managers and employees;
  • creation and development of teams;
  • leadership development.

The second goal requires the development of the following processes:

  • monitoring the performance of personnel in the enterprise, the reasons for growth and decline;
  • analysis of the needs of personnel in the enterprise;
  • design, implement and transform motivational communication systems.

However, not all HR policy goals are universal, so they cannot be used in any company. Businesses differ in the nature of the business, the environment in which they operate, the organization of work, the groups of people, even the problems they face. Therefore, each goal can be specifically tailored to the firm under study.

essence and goals of personnel policy

Main Tasks

The area of ​​personnel management shouldperform their tasks to the highest possible level. This process directly affects the success of the company, its efficiency and profitability.

The essence and objectives of the personnel policy are presented below:

  • Tool Management: It is the responsibility of Human Resources to develop the most appropriate personal and economic system. It contains a description of all the functions of employees and requirements for them, the organization of time and place of work, information about the corporate culture and goals of the enterprise. It also includes an assessment of the potential of human capital, the system of remuneration, bonuses, as well as the recruitment and selection of new employees. Management tools that are important to the enterprise help them make urgent decisions.
  • Competence Management: This role is responsible for the correct adaptation of people in positions. The thoroughness and detail of this function affects the readiness of the organization to perform its tasks reliably and quickly. This is expressed directly in the presence of people with appropriate qualifications and competencies in certain positions. Factors such as knowledge, experience, skills, abilities, and even the value system of employees can be important here. The so-called competency cube, containing the basic description of the elements of personnel development, helps in choosing the right people.
  • Change Management: Organizations are increasingly aware of the need for constant flexibility. Today's dynamic environment requires companies to quickly and continuously respond and improve. The personnel department is responsible for planning the necessary measures in the field of communication,employee participation. Later, he manages the stabilization process and eliminates crises.
  • Managing value creation: This area is based on the quantification of costs and results of work, as well as the representation of personnel work in monetary units.
essence and objectives of personnel policy

Essence and directions

The essence and directions of personnel policy are to determine the goals associated with the formation of the social potential of the company, as well as to ensure the highest possible degree of striving for their implementation in the existing external and internal conditions. In the above definition, three main areas of personnel policy should be distinguished.

The first of these is the assumption that personnel policy, like any other, should be aimed at developing, achieving specific assumptions of plans and concepts.

The second aspect has to do with implementation. The process of programming and planning, which is also not politics, should be treated in the same way.

The third aspect relates to the need to come to terms with the fact that some goals cannot be achieved and others are not worth it. Therefore, planning and implementation must be flexible.

Politics strongly influence each other. Changing even one of them changes the other. That is why the goals of personnel policy and the mission of the company are inextricably linked. The personnel policy serves the mission of the company, which, in turn, is of paramount importance. Moreover, the relationship between these twoconcepts has some characteristics of feedback: on the one hand, the mission affects the personnel policy of the company, and on the other hand, without a properly implemented personnel policy, the mission cannot be implemented.

essence and content of personnel policy


The concept of personnel policy is not just a change in the definition of already existing traditional terms. In accordance with this concept, a completely new paradigm of human capital management is being formed. The new philosophy draws attention to the fact that human resources are capital that needs to be multiplied.

Model representation of personnel policy includes the following elements:

  • people strategy, which is part of an organization's strategy and a concept that shapes and engages human resources to achieve specific goals;
  • personal interests combined with core business processes;
  • tools.

The essence and types of an organization's personnel policy can be reflected in two models: the Michigan model and the Harvard model.

Michigan Model

The concept of the Michigan Model was developed by a group of researchers at the University of Michigan. The result of their activities was the formation of the concept of strategic personnel management, in which personnel management was combined with the structure and strategy of the company.

The essence of this type of policy is to link all aspects of the functioning of the company and the impact on it of economic, political andcultural forces. In this model, human resources and organizational structure must be managed in accordance with the overall strategy. The corresponding model lists the main interrelated functions that form the personnel policy cycle.

Increasing the company's flexibility in the market will largely depend on the qualifications of the staff. The faster the level of knowledge and skills of employees to constantly changing conditions improves, the greater the likelihood of success for the whole company as a whole. Therefore, the proper functioning of the enterprise depends, first of all, on the appropriate decisions of the staff, which should adjust the quality of the employee's competencies depending on the position held. To a large extent, increasing competitiveness also depends on the approach of employees to the work they perform. People whose professional position is safe and secure will be more effective and involved in self-development. In this case, a very good motivation is the possibility of promotion in the hierarchy of the company.

The main areas of personnel policy and the essence of personnel policy in this model include: employee participation, mobility, types of motivation and work organization. The assumption of this concept lies in the possibility of influence of both external stakeholders (for example, shareholders, government, local governments, customers and suppliers), and internal (for example, employees, management personnel, trade unions), as well as external situational factors (the law of value, labor market and technological changes, strategies, philosophiesmanagement, tasks).

the essence of the personnel policy of the organization is

Harvard model

Human resources policy in the Harvard model directly affects the involvement, competencies, efficiency of human resources, which has a long-term effect on individual satisfaction, organizational effectiveness and social well-being. All these areas are interconnected with each other.

These models represent hard (Michigan model) and soft (Harvard model) approaches to personnel policy.


The concept and essence of personnel policy can be reflected through the system of elements:

  • Planning for staff needs: it is important to determine how many people will do the job and what qualifications they need to demonstrate;
  • selection of personnel: from among people with high professional qualifications, those who will be most suitable for a specific task are selected;
  • training system;
  • evaluation of employee performance in terms of performance;
  • principles of staff remuneration;
  • employment status and structure;
  • motivational system;
  • organizational provisions.

The main direction of personnel policy is the need to take care not only of profit maximization and financial success of the enterprise, but also to create comfortable working conditions and development opportunities for employees. Then they will become the best guarantee for the development of a company.

Peculiarities in state structures

Let's consider the essence of the state personnel policy.

There are many definitions of this concept, which are outlined by scientists and practitioners in the field of human resource management. This phenomenon should be considered in a broad and narrow sense.

In the broad sense of the word, the country's personnel policy is understood as a system of officially recognized tasks, values ​​and principles of the state's actions to regulate all personnel operations and relations.

In the narrow sense of the word, the essence of the state personnel policy is an expression of the country's tactics in relation to the formation, professional development and demand for the state's personnel potential. It is the science and art of regulating personal actions and social relationships.

The question "Define the essence of the state personnel policy in modern conditions" is relevant. The personnel policy of the country is an impartially conditioned social phenomenon. It is impartial in its content in the sense that it reflects the specific patterns of development of real personal actions and relations in the state. At the same time, the country's personnel policy is personal in nature, as it is carried out by people.

Because the mechanisms for implementing this type of policy are almost entirely determined by personal factors: education, thinking, traditions, experience and personal preferences of managers. It is important that personal reasons do not conflict with the goals in the development and implementation of this policy.

The essence of personnel policy in the public service in modern conditions in Russiaconsists in a sequence of actions on the part of the state to form requirements for civil servants for their selection, training and rational use, taking into account the state and prospects for the development of the state apparatus.

The state acts as the only employer in this situation.

The essence and basic principles of the state personnel policy are as follows:

  • formation of an effective recruitment mechanism;
  • raising the prestige of the civil service;
  • development of programs for training and advanced training of personnel.


The essence and content of the personnel policy are based on the transparency of the system, ensuring equal opportunities and common standards in companies in the management of human resources.

Organizations are engaged in personnel policy mainly with the aim of gaining a competitive advantage in the market and harmonizing elements of the management system with the strategy.

Human resources management must be consistent with the overall strategy of the company. Management uses a variety of methods such as SWOT analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of current human resources, as well as opportunities and threats that may or may not emerge in the future.

Personnel policy and the essence of personnel policy is a long-term concept of working with people, which aims to shape and involve them appropriately in the production process. Companies should be focused on activating employees in order to direct them to individualimprovement and change, which in turn contributes to the enhancement and development of their personal competencies.

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