System analysis: basics of system analysis, textbooks and their authors

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System analysis: basics of system analysis, textbooks and their authors
System analysis: basics of system analysis, textbooks and their authors

System analysis (basics of system analysis) is presented as a set of tools and methods that are necessary in the development and design of multi-level objects, methods for developing, arguing and making decisions on design issues, as well as for managing social, technical, economic and related (man-machine) systems.

Historical note

There is a related definition - a systematic approach, but this concept is collective. The emergence of system analysis (the foundations of system analysis) occurred in the 60s of the last century due to the development of systems engineering. According to methodological characteristics and in theory, the basis of systems analysis consists of a general systems theory and a systems approach.

Fundamentals of system analysis and management

System analysis (SA) is used by specialists in the study of artificial systems, but the main role in the processgot to the person. The use of such an approach in resolving managerial issues entails the spontaneity of choice in terms of ambiguity, the presence of which is associated with existing related factors, which cannot be assessed from a quantitative point of view. The CA process aims to find alternative solutions to an issue and calculate the scale of uncertainty, resulting in a comparison of options against the relevant necessary criteria to achieve effectiveness.

Holistic system

According to the theoretical foundations of systems analysis, any complexity in management should be considered as something complex with interacting components. To determine how to solve issues related to the system under consideration, it is necessary to distinguish between the main and secondary goals. Building a generalized model that reflects the relationship with the real situation is the main procedure of SA. Having a prototype, the process moves to the comparative stage of the analysis of potential resource costs. SA does not exist without applied mathematical methods that are widely used in management activities. The technical basis of the process is information systems and computer technology. The methods of the following disciplines play a leading role in SA:

  • modeling by simulation;
  • system dynamics;
  • heuristic programming;
  • game theory;
  • program-target management.

A high result is achieved when using non-formalized and formalized research methods.

Measurement system

System analysis transformation process

The prerequisites for the next new step in the development of the foundations of systems theory and system analysis appeared closer to the middle of the last century, this happened due to the development of science and technology, where the main place began to be occupied by the functioning and organization of multicomponent objects.

In the second half of the 20th century, tasks similar in their problems moved to the social level. At certain stages of the development of theoretical and practical knowledge, system theories began to appear as independent methodological disciplines that turned out to be useful in solving engineering and management problems. All this led to the formation of the SA. Cybernetics, decision theory, simulation modeling, operations research, expert analysis, structural-linguistic prototyping, and situational management have come together over time under the term “systems research.”

As an independent direction, system analysis (basics of system analysis) originated in the United States, it was a forced step in solving applied business problems (determining the need for equipment upgrades, increasing the number of employees, forecasting product demand). Gradually, this approach penetrated into the sphere of managerial activity of the state apparatus, where transformations took place in the technical equipment of the armed forces, the implementation of the state. projects, space exploration.

Fundamentals of systems theory and system analysis

Tasks of the systemanalysis

This discipline was formed when it was necessary to design and analyze large-scale systems that are controlled with limited resources and incompleteness of available data. Large systems are spatial structures of a high degree of complexity, where even subsystems are classified by their type as complex categories.

The logical foundations of system analysis are based on solving the following tasks:

  1. Resolving a problem situation. To do this, the object of the question is studied, the reasons are identified, and solutions are being worked out.
  2. Difficulty in choosing the right solution, which is associated with the definition of an alternative to a progressive system.
  3. Research of goal-setting processes, development of means for working with goals.
  4. Organization of management in hierarchical systems.
  5. Identifying similar problems with similar goals.
  6. Combining formal and informal methods of analysis and synthesis.
  7. Designing simulation systems of varying complexity.
  8. Research of the complex of interactions of the analyzed objects with the external environment.

Use of computers

In the 60-70s of the XX century, many approaches to system analysis appeared, which became possible to put into practice thanks to the introduction of computers. The use of technology made it possible to solve complex problems and move from the study of theory to its practical application. The widespread widespread use of system analysis is interconnected with the popularization of the program-target method of management, when, beforesolve the problem, draw up a special program, select the necessary specialists, allocate material resources.

Modern technologies

Due to the dynamic technological development, schools of system analysis began to appear, where they began to practice the use of strategic planning and enterprise management, as well as project management of technical complexes. In 1972, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis was opened in Laxenburg, Austria. The working process was improved thanks to the participation of 12 countries. To date, the institution is working in the field of applying the methodological basis of system analysis to solve global problems of an international scale.

Soviet school

Active development of SA falls on the 60s of the last century. A. A. Bogdanov became the forerunner of the Soviet school, it was he who proposed the concept of tectology - a universal organizational science, interconnected with the theory of systems by Bertalanffy, who believed that the development of all objects occurs in an organized manner, depending on the differences in the properties of the whole and its constituent elements. As a result of such an analysis, it was possible to identify excellent parameters of the concept of a complex system - similar assumptions and conclusions began to appear in scientific notes, textbooks on the basics of system analysis began to be published as teaching aids.

Bogdanov began to delve into the study of the statistical state of structures, the study of the dynamic behavior of objects, taking into account the goals of the organization, emphasizing the important role of open systems,modeling and mathematical analysis. All his ideas were continued in the works of Schmalhausen I. I. and Beklemishev V. N. But it was Chernyak Yu. System analysis in design and management.”

Soviet view of systematization

Foreign and Soviet teachers began to publish textbooks on the fundamentals of system analysis, both as a separate discipline and as an integral part of similar ones. The first such editions are:

  1. “The formation and essence of a systematic approach” (1973), authored by Blauberg I.V. and Yudin E.G.
  2. Systems Engineering: An Introduction to the Design of Large Systems (1962), Good G.H. and Macall R.Z.
  3. “Problems of systemology (problems of the theory of complex systems)” (1976), Druzhinin V.V. and Kontorov D.S.
  4. "Analysis of complex systems" (1969), Quaid E.
  5. “Theory of hierarchical multilevel systems” (1973), Mesarovich M., Mako D., Takahara M.
  6. "System Analysis for Solving Business and Industrial Problems" (1969), Optner S.
  7. "Introduction to System Analysis" (1989), Peregudov F.I. and Tarasenko F.P.
  8. "Adaptation of complex systems" (1981), Rastrigin L. A.
  9. “Foundations of general systems theory. Logical and methodological analysis "(1974), Sadovsky V. N.
  10. "Studies in General Systems Theory" (1969), Sadovsky V.N. and Yudin E.G.
  11. "System Analysis and Control Structures" (1975) ed. V. G. Shorina.
  12. "Systems approach and general systems theory" (1978), Uyomov A.I.

Striving for unity

Now the basics of the theory of systems analysis are used in all areas. The synthesis of knowledge arises as a result of the assembly and cooperation of its structural variations. Unity and synthesis are steps in the development of science. The types of integrity of scientific knowledge are:

  1. The emergence of cybernetics, general systems theory, semiotics and other identical disciplines, there is a synthesis of new knowledge.
  2. Striving for methodological unity, when special science continues in the process of transferring its theoretical justification to other objects of research (methodological expansion).
  3. The emergence of fundamental concepts in the field of natural language, which are subsequently included in the system of philosophical categories (a conceptual form of the unity of science).
  4. Development and use of a unified philosophical methodology, which is the root cause for the formation of a higher synthesis at narrower levels of the study of ideas.
Fundamentals of systems analysis textbook

The system of the whole world is a hierarchy of organized and interacting systems. In practice, there is a comparison and coordination of the systems of the world and human thinking. It is recommended to start studying the basics of system analysis and management by familiarizing yourself with the reference signals presented by V.F.which is systemic in nature. Thanks to such “signals”, which are definitions and theses with the encoded content of the discipline, compiled by system analysts, it is possible to present new information in the most convenient form for study and understanding.

Professor's fundamental expressions

The textbook "Fundamentals of System Analysis" by V. N. Spitsnadel tells about the history of the development of the process, and also deepens the reader's knowledge of the logical, methodological and practical foundations of using SA in science, education, technology and economics. “The system approach is one of the most important intellectual properties of a person,” the professor believes, offering this expression as a reference signal for beginners in system analysis. Understanding the need for interaction between the elements of the system in order to achieve the desired result, Spitsnadel demonstrates through one saying that was once spoken by an English officer in World War II: “These guys will not even take up a soldering iron until they analyze the strategy of military operations in the entire Pacific theater.” Thus, in this expression one can trace the unity of tasks of local and global significance.

Fundamentals of a systematic approach and system analysis

In "Fundamentals of Systems Analysis" Spitznadel says that the approach, if it is scientific, is already systems. “All human practice has a systemic nature. It is necessary to harmonize thinking and systemicity.” He refutes the fact that education is linear (non-systemic), he argues thatthinking is provided by education, from which it follows that it must also be systemic. The professor sees the importance and advantage of using SA in making optimal decisions.


CA is used in various fields of activity. The Russian theoretical physicist Makrusev V.V. spoke a lot on this topic, considering the discipline under a versatile prism (customs activity, cognitive dynamics, global information and computing systems, management). During his life, he published quite a lot of teaching aids.

Textbook Makrusev V. V. "Fundamentals of system analysis and management in customs" wrote to consider an integrative management model, the application of system analysis and evolutionary methods of research in this field of activity. Such a manual has important information about the essence of the discipline, considers its segments and characteristics, analyzes the primary classifications and the main properties of the system. The textbook is intended for specialists and masters, as well as for anyone interested in system analysis.

Fundamentals of system analysis in customs

The basics of system analysis in customs are discussed in more detail in other manuals, notes and publications of the Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences:

  1. Innovative directions for the development of the system for coordinating state customs services.
  2. System development and regulation of the external economy and customs activities on a similar model.
  3. Planning in theory and developmentultimate goals of the SA in customs.
  4. Transformation of the institution of customs administration into the structure of customs services: the task and features of its solution.
  5. Development of the customs institution as a system of customs services.
  6. System analysis in customs.

Many study guides were written jointly with colleagues (Volkov V.F., Evseeva P.V., Dianova V.Yu., Timofeev V.T., Andreev A.F. and others).

Scientific and educational literature

The basics of system analysis in customs are set forth by Makrusev V. V. in the manual of the same name, where he examines the issues of this discipline, provides an integrated approach to the development of organizational, social and economic systems. Here, for the first time, the term "customs system" appears, modern problems of the customs system are identified and analyzed, options for information controlling are determined and managerial solutions to emerging problems are found. The textbook discusses software and information tools for the analytical work of representatives of customs authorities, and also shows the effectiveness of methodological tools for expert and analytical activities.

Theoretical foundations of system analysis

The textbook "Fundamentals of System Analysis" (Makrusev V.V.) is useful for university students studying in the speci alty "Customs", "System Analysis, Management and Information Processing", and for the management of the analytical departments of RTU and departments. Information may be necessary for customs officials.Here you can find answers to the questions of goal setting, methodology and methods of system analysis.

Higher professional education

There are a number of systems analysis manuals where a student of a higher educational institution can find the information he needs. Such a textbook is "Fundamentals of Systems and System Analysis" by V. V. Kachal, which is recommended for students studying the speci alties "Applied Informatics", "Business Informatics", "Information Systems and Technologies", as well as other students and graduate students of economic faculties. The manual consists of a preface, introduction, control questions and assignments, two parts (“basics of systems theory” and “basics of system analysis”), 17 chapters and a glossary. Each chapter has subsections that describe each issue in more detail. At the end of the chapter there is a summary and a section with questions and assignments.

Lesson on the basics of systems analysis

The book is recommended reading if you have questions about the following subject matter:

  1. Goals and goal setting.
  2. Object, model and system.
  3. Properties and their measurements.
  4. Constructive and functional properties of the system.
  5. Systemwide patterns.
  6. Classification of systems.
  7. Systems in management and organization.
  8. Methodology and modeling in systems analysis.
  9. Mathematical models.
  10. Expert and structural-functional problem solving methods.
  11. Structuring methods.
  12. System approach to forecasting.
  13. Examples of systemicanalysis.

These fundamentals of systems and system analysis help to solve global management issues in the enterprise, in education, customs and other activities.

Tutorial by F.I. Peregudov and F.P. Tarasenko

Specialists of any profile often wonder about a quick solution to a real problem in the absence of the necessary education in another field, assuming in connection with this the appearance of additional problems. Important tasks remain to reduce the level of complexity of the situation that has arisen, the correct organization of the study of the system under consideration and the design of a new one. Modern applied analysis can help solve the problems listed above. This discipline is of interest to almost all specialists, since many elements have a similar nature, basic concepts and solution methods.

The textbook "Fundamentals of System Analysis" by Peregudov and Tarasenko considers:

  1. The emergence and development of system views.
  2. Models and modeling.
  3. Systems and systems models.
  4. Artificial and natural systems.
  5. Informational aspects of studying systems.
  6. The role of measurements in creating system models.
  7. Choice (decision making).
  8. Decomposition and aggregation as SA procedures.
  9. Unformalizable stages of SA.
Peregudov, Tarasenko - Fundamentals of system analysis

Each chapter analyzes the issue from several points of view, detailing the specifics of this discipline. At the end of the book there are questions forself-tests, where the reader can consciously check the knowledge gained. At the beginning of the textbook, Tarasenko and Peregudov present the foundations of system analysis as the result of a scientific and technological revolution that contributed to the emergence of the term "complex systems". Over the years, methods and approaches to solving emerging problems have been developed and generalized, forming a technology for overcoming quantitative and qualitative difficulties. Applied and theoretical disciplines formed a "systems movement", respectively, an applied science should have arisen that would connect systemic practice with abstract theories. Such a "bridge" was system analysis, which today has become an independent discipline and attracts a wide range of tools and opportunities for solving the tasks. Such applied dialectic emphasizes the methodological aspects of any system research.

The writers are sure that after reading this book, one cannot become a specialist and fully learn the basics of a systems approach and systems analysis. Professionalism is acquired only through practice. The most difficult and at the same time interesting part of system analysis is finding and solving problems from real life, separating the important from the insignificant.

Principles of system analysis

There are no universal methods for conducting SA, often the same type of methods or identical ones are developed that can be used with similar problems. It is considered common to determine the patterns of functioning of the system, the formation of alternative algorithms and the choice of the mostsuitable solution to the problem. The CA Principles List is a summary of the practice of dealing with complex systems. Each author has different principles in some elements, for example, Makrusev in the "Fundamentals of System Analysis" describes his own version of such concepts, but they have the same general concept. Basic Principles:

  1. The ultimate goal (highlights the priority of the main task, the achievement of which involves the subordination of all elements of the system). It is carried out according to the following plan: formulation of the goal; understanding the main purpose of the goal of the system under study; assessment of changes in relation to the effectiveness of achieving the final goal.
  2. Measurements. The effectiveness of the system can only be determined in relation to the goals and objectives of the supersystem.
  3. Equifinalities. The desired result can be achieved in various ways, regardless of time and initial conditions.
  4. Unity. The system is considered as a whole, consisting of many interconnected elements.
  5. Connections. The dependence of the system on the external environment is considered and revealed, as well as its connections with its own subsystems.
  6. Modular construction. Study of the system as a set of modules (groups of elements). The division of the system into interacting modules depends on the purpose of the study and may have an informational, functional and algorithmic basis. The terms "subsystem" or "unit" may be used instead of the definition "module".
  7. Hierarchies. This principle, common to all complex systems, simplifies its development and streamlines its parts. In line organizationalstructures use central control, non-linear structures use any degree of decentralization.
  8. Functionality. The analysis is performed with the priority of the function over the structure. Any structure is associated with the function of the system and its components. With the advent of new potential functions, the structure is being revised. Teachers at the lesson on the basics of system analysis consider structures, functions and processes separately, the latter are reduced to the analysis of the main flows in the system: energy, information, material flows, change of states. There is parallelism in the work of the governing bodies, attempts to improve the work of the organization by changing the structure of the system.
  9. Development. Accounting for the variability of the system, its adaptation and ability to expand. At the core is the desire for improvement.
  10. Centralization and decentralization. Differences in the increase in system adaptation time: what happens in a centralized system in a short time, in a decentralized one is implemented slowly.
  11. Uncertainties. Analysis of randomness in the system. Complex open systems do not obey the laws of probability. When receiving fuzzy and stochastic input information, the results of the research will be probabilistic in nature and decisions can lead to ambiguous consequences.

All of the above principles of system analysis (basics of system analysis) have a high degree of generality. For their practical use, it is necessary to fill them with specific content applicable to the subject of study.

All the clues in the books

EditionsXXI century

In modern times, system analysis has been transformed and expanded its capabilities. This discipline can be applied in any field of activity. Systems analysis is now studied as a textbook and taught in universities and other educational institutions. Tutorials that may be useful to anyone interested in systems analysis:

  1. “System Analysis”, Antonov A.V. (2004)
  2. “System Analysis in Management”, Anfilatov V.S., Emelyanov A.A., Kukushkin A.A., under. ed. A. A. Emelyanova (2002).
  3. “From the history of the development of system analysis in our country”, Volkova V.N. (2001).
  4. “General systems theory (systems and systems analysis)”, Gaides M. A. (2005).
  5. “Theories of systems and fundamentals of system analysis”, Kachala V.V. (2007).
  6. "Horizons of system analysis", Lnogradsky L. A. (2000).
  7. "System Analysis in Logistics", Mirotin L. B. and Tashbaev Y. E. (2002).
  8. “For a system analyst… On the design of software products”, Radzishevsky A. (2015).
  9. "System Analysis: A Short Course of Lectures", ed. V. P. Prokhorova (2006).
  10. "System Analysis and Decision Making" (dictionary-reference book, textbook for universities), ed. V. N. Volkova, V. N. Kozlova (2004).

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