The history of our country knows many ups and downs. They took place at various times under various circumstances. The period of the Soviet Union is of great importance in national history. What kind of opinions do not exist regarding the USSR. He is loved, he is scolded, he is praised, he is misunderstood, he is treated with indulgence or disgust, he is missed. It is impossible to unequivocally determine the position of the USSR in world history - whether it was good or bad, in simple terms. People who lived in the Soviet Union remember many positive things, but they also remember moments that brought them negative emotions and difficulties. What did the USSR remember in the international arena? One of these things was the power and party system of the Soviet Union.
What about the parties?
When we talk about the Soviet Union, the Communist Party comes to mind, and nothing else, collectivism and community. But in fact, throughout the existence of such a state as the Soviet Union, there were many parties of the USSR - 21. It's just that not all of them were vigorously active, some served only to create an image of a multi-party system, they were a kind of curtain. It makes no sense to consider all the political parties of the Soviet Union, so let's focus on the key ones.The central place, of course, is occupied by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which we will discuss later, how it was organized and what its significance is.
Formation of a one-party system
One-party system was a distinctive and characteristic feature of the political system of the Soviet Union. The beginning of the formation was laid along with the refusal of cooperation of most political parties, after which there were disagreements in the unification of the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and the further ousting of the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries. The main methods of struggle were arrests and exile and exile abroad. By the 1920s, there are no political organizations left that could still exert at least some influence. Until the 1930s, there were still attempts at opposition phenomena and the creation of political parties in the USSR, but they were explained as side events of the internal party struggle for power. In the 1920s and 1930s, party committees at all levels unquestioningly carried out the given general line, not really thinking about the consequences. The main condition for the formation of a one-party system was the reliance on repressive and punitive bodies and measures. As a result, the state began to belong to a single party, which concentrated in its hands all three branches of power - legislative, executive and judicial. The experience of our country has shown that the monopoly on power in a long period of time has a negative impact on society and the state. In such a situation, space for arbitrariness is formed, the corruption of the holders of power and the destructioncivil society.
Beginning of the end?
1917 was marked by the scope of activity in our country of the main and very first parties. The USSR, of course, along with its formation, destroyed the multi-party system, but the existing political groups largely influenced the beginning of the history of the Soviet Union. The political struggle between the parties in 1917 was sharp. The February revolution brought the defeat of right-wing monarchist parties and groups. And the confrontation between socialism and liberalism, that is, the Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, Bolsheviks and Cadets, took center stage. There was also a confrontation between moderate socialism and radicalism, that is, between the Mensheviks, right and central SRs and the Bolsheviks, left SRs and anarchists.
Communist Party of the USSR
The CPSU has become a monumental phenomenon of the twentieth century. As the ruling party of the USSR, it functioned in a one-party system and had a monopoly on the exercise of political power, thanks to which an autocratic political regime was established in the country. The party operated from the early 1920s until March 1990. The status of the Communist Party of the USSR was enshrined in the Constitution: Article 126 in the Constitution of 1936 proclaimed the CPSU as the leading core inherent in state and public organizations of workers. The 1977 constitution already, in turn, proclaimed it as the guiding and guiding force for Soviet society as a whole.meaning. The year 1990 was marked by the abolition of the monopoly of the right to political power, but the Constitution of the Soviet Union, even in the new edition, especially singled out the CPSU in relation to other parties of the USSR.
The same as the CPSU?
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union has gone through several name changes in its history. The listed political parties of the USSR in their meaning and essence are one and the same party. The history of the CPSU begins with the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, which operated in 1898-1917. Then it undergoes transformation into the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (Bolsheviks), which operates in 1917-1918. Replaces the RSDLP (b) Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and operates from 1918 to 1925. From 1925 to 1952, the RCP (b) becomes the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). And in the end, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is formed, it is also the CPSU, it is also the party that has become a household name.
Party at the formation of the USSR
The significance of the formation of the USSR for the ruling party has become significant. For all peoples, it has become a historical and cultural association, and for the party an opportunity to strengthen its position. In addition, the country was strengthening in the geopolitical world space. Initially, the Bolsheviks adhered to the ideas of unitarism, which adversely affected the development of multinationalism. But in the late 30s in the end it's all the samethere was a transition to a unitary model in the version of Joseph Stalin.
Will there be socialism?
The Socialist Party of the USSR is a political party formed in 1990 that defended the ideas of democratic socialism. It was formed at the founding congress held in Moscow on June 23-24. The leaders of the party were Kagarlitsky, Komarov, Kondratov, Abramovich (not Roman), Baranov, Lepekhin and Kolpakidi. In its program, like other parties of the USSR, the Socialist Party proclaimed the goal of protecting the interests of wage workers, but as that part of society that is most alienated from the means of production, power and products of labor. The SP of the USSR sought to create a society of self-governing socialism. But this party did not achieve much success, and in fact, in January-February 1992, its activities ceased, but the official dissolution of the party has not yet taken place.
Congresses of the CPSU
Officially, there are 28 congresses of the parties of the USSR. By definition of the charter of the Communist Party, the Congress of the CPSU is the highest body of leadership of the party, which was a meeting of its delegates convened on a regular basis. As already mentioned, there were 28 congresses in total. They start counting from the first congress of the RSDLP in 1898 in Minsk. The first seven congresses are characterized by holding not only in different cities, but also in countries. The first, which is also the founding congress, was held in Minsk. The second congress was accepted by Brussels and London. The third was also held in London. Participants of the fourth visited Stockholm, and the fifth was again held in London. sixth and seventhcongresses were held in Petrograd. From the Eighth Congress to the end, they were all held in Moscow. The October Revolution led to the decision to hold congresses annually, but after 1925 they became less frequent. The biggest break in the history of the party was the interval between the 18th and 19th congresses - it amounted to 13 years. In 1961-1986, congresses are held every five years. Historians attribute fluctuations in how often the party was convened to fluctuations in its own position. When Stalin came to power, there was a sharp decrease in frequency, and, for example, when Khrushchev came to power, congresses began to be held more often. The last congress of the Communist Party of the USSR was held in 1990.
Big period of history. Before USSR
The role of the party in the USSR and before its formation was huge and ambiguous. The CPSU went through many events in the Soviet Union. Let's recall the main ones.
The October Revolution of 1917 is one of the biggest political events of the 20th century and has greatly influenced the course of world history. The revolution led to the Russian Civil War, the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the rise to power of a new Bolshevik-dominated government
War communism of 1918-1921 was the name given to Russia's domestic policy during the Civil War. It was characterized by centralized management of the economy, the nationalization of industry, surplus appropriation, a ban on private trade, the curtailment of commodity-money relations, equalization in the distribution of material we alth, an orientation towards the militarization of labor. The basis for war communism wasthe ideology of communism, which involved the transformation of the country into a single factory, working for the common good
Big period of history. USSR
The following events took place in the life of the USSR party already with its formation.
The New Economic Policy of 1921-1928 is Soviet Russia's economic policy that replaced War Communism, which led to economic decline. The goals of the NEP were to introduce private enterprise and revive market relations for the restoration of the national economy. The NEP was largely forced and had an improvisational character. But, despite this, it has become one of the most successful economic projects in the entire Soviet period. The CPSU faced the most important problems, such as financial stabilization, lowering inflation, and achieving a balance in the state budget. The NEP made it possible to quickly restore the national economy, destroyed during the First World War and the Civil War
Lenin's appeal of 1924. The full name of this historical event is "Lenin's call to the party" - the period that began after the death of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin on January 24, 1924. At this time, there was a massive influx of people into the Bolshevik Party. Most of all, workers and the poorest peasants (poor and middle peasants) were recruited into the party
The intra-party struggle of 1926-1933 is a historical process during which power was redistributed in the CPSU(b) after V. I. Lenin left politics. The leaders of the Communist Party waged a fierce struggle over who would become his successor. EventuallyI.V. Stalin pulled over the blanket, pushing back such rivals as Trotsky and Zinoviev
Stalinism of 1933-1954 got its name from the main exponent of ideology and practice, Joseph Stalin. These years became a period of such a political system, when the power of the party in the USSR became not only monopoly, but even given to a single person. The dominance of authoritarianism, the strengthening of state punitive functions, the strict ideological control of all aspects of public life - all this characterized Stalinism. Some researchers call it totalitarianism - one of its extreme forms
Khrushchev thaw of 1953-1964. This period received its unofficial name after the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU Nikita Khrushchev. It continued for 10 years after Stalin's death. The main features: the condemnation of the personality cult of Stalin and the ongoing repressions of the 30s, the release of political prisoners, the liquidation of the Gulag, the weakening of totalitarianism, the appearance of the first hints of freedom of speech, the relative liberalization of politics and public life. Open cooperation with the Western world began, free creative activity appeared
The stagnation period of 1964-1985, aka the stagnation era. This is the name of a period covering two decades of "developed socialism". Stagnation begins with the coming to power of Brezhnev
Perestroika of 1985-1991 is a huge and large-scale change of an ideological, economic and political nature. The purpose of the reforms is to comprehensively democratize the system that has developed in the USSR.Plans for the development of measures began in the 80s on behalf of Yu. V. Andropov. In 1987, perestroika was announced as a new state ideology, cardinal changes began in the life of the country
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU - abolished public office. She was the highest in the Communist Party. After the death of V. I. Lenin, the position becomes the highest in the USSR. Stalin became the first general secretary. Other secretaries of the USSR party were N. S. Khrushchev, L. I. Brezhnev, Yu. V. Andropov, K. U. Chernenko, M. S. Gorbachev. In 1953, instead of the position of general secretary, the post of first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU was introduced, which in 1966 was again renamed the general secretary. It is officially fixed in the charter of the Communist Party. Unlike other positions in the leadership of the party, the position of General Secretary was the only non-collegiate one.
In 1992, a court case was initiated - "The Case of the CPSU". In the process of considering this case, attention was paid to such an issue as the constitutionality of the decrees of President B. N. Yeltsin to stop the activities of the Communist Party, the seizure of property and the dissolution. A petition to open a case was filed by 37 people's deputies of Russia.
After the collapse of the USSR, some organizational structures of the CPSU did not recognize the ban and continued to operate illegally. One of the largest successor organizations is the Union of Communist Parties. In 1993, the first congress of this party was held in Moscow. In 2001, it broke up into two parts, one of which was headed by G.A.Zyuganov.