Palladium: where it is used, applications and properties

Science 2023

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Palladium: where it is used, applications and properties
Palladium: where it is used, applications and properties
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Recently, more and more often you can hear the question of where palladium is used and how to get it. This is not at all accidental, because its value and nobility play an important role. Many people want to acquire this expensive metal for various reasons, but not everyone succeeds. It's hard to find palladium just by walking down the road, although it can happen to the lucky ones.

where palladium is used in industry

The article will tell you about the properties and applications of palladium, as well as prices for it today. The information will be of particular interest to connoisseurs of precious metals. Even despite the fact that the active mining of this element began not so long ago, its popularity has already increased quite well.

Properties

Before we talk about where palladium is used, it's worth knowing why it has become so relevant today. In fact, this was facilitated not only by the nobleorigin, but also incredible properties, of which this metal is not so little.

In science, there are three main groups of properties: physical, chemical and biological. These are the ones that need to be considered separately. This will help build a broader understanding of what the item in question is.

use of palladium

Physical

Speaking of where palladium is used and where it came from, it is worth mentioning an English chemist named William Wollaston. It was he who received this metal, back in 1803. And the name of this element was given in honor of the asteroid Pallas, which became known to the world shortly before the removal of this metal in the laboratory. In those days, it was difficult for people to find a purpose for a new element, so for a certain period of time he had to lie idle.

Palladium itself has a silvery white hue. As for its appearance, it resembles ordinary silver. The physical properties of this element were found to be:

  • boiling point - 2940 °C;
  • density – 12.0 g/cm3;
  • modulus of elasticity - 12,600 kgf/mm2;
  • melting point - 1554 °C;
  • Brinell hardness - 52 kgf/mm2.

It is also worth noting that even today the metal in question is recognized as one of the rarest on the planet. On the whole earth it is present only 0, 000001%.

Another interesting ability of an element is to change its structurestarting from heating from 18 °C. And with a further increase in this indicator, the changes become irreversible.

Scientists add elements of the platinum group to palladium. Due to this, they manage to significantly improve the properties of the precious metal. For example, with the addition of ruthenium and rhodium, the chemical element becomes twice as strong and elastic.

use of palladium in industry

Chemical

The active use of palladium in various fields of activity is also explained by its chemical properties. First of all, it should be noted that it has a fairly high inertia, as well as galvanic resistance, which is extremely rare in modern metals. Such properties are explained by the atomic structure of the element. It is also worth saying that it does not interact with acids, water molecules and alkalis in any way, so it will not be possible to put the simplest school experiments on it, although hardly anyone will agree to get it for such purposes.

If you heat the metal to 350 degrees, its resistance will remain stable. But with an increase in this indicator, it will begin to oxidize. As a result of this reaction, a dull oxide film is formed on the metal surface. If you heat it up to 850 degrees, you can observe its decay. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that in the temperature range from 800 to 850 degrees, the element already has resistance to oxidation and does not lend itself to it.

Not so long ago, scientists found out one interesting fact. Its essence is that a solution of nitric acid is capable of thinning pure titaniumplate by 19 mm per year, and in the case of an alloy of palladium with the same titanium, thinning will occur much more slowly - only 0.10 mm per year.

Heated up to 500 degrees, the element successfully interacts with various oxidizing agents, including fluorine. Thanks to this, scientists have already been able to conduct a lot of research.

An additional chemical property of palladium is its ability to enhance the anti-corrosion capabilities of titanium. When a precious metal is added to this element, its resistance to aggressive environments increases significantly.

the use of palladium in industry

Biological

Medical applications of palladium have not yet been fully explored. At the moment, scientists are still figuring out the biological properties of this element. But on the other hand, they have already discovered its healing potential, thanks to which it is actively used in medicine in the form of complex compounds for the production of cytostatic drugs.

Where palladium is mined

Today, Norilsk Nickel is to be thanked for the use of palladium in Russia. It is she who holds the first place in the extraction of this precious metal. The holding is engaged in the production of about 41% of palladium raw materials worldwide. The main deposits are located on the Taimyr Peninsula, which is located in the Arctic. There are copper-nickel deposits, where activities are carried out to extract the precious element.

The second state in terms of receiving palladium is South Africa. Here are presentdeposits that provide about 38% of the metal production in the world.

The remaining share, which is 21%, is divided into several fields located in the following countries:

  • Canada - 9%;
  • Zimbabwe – 3%;
  • North America - 6%;
  • Colombia, Australia and others (together) - 3%.
palladium application

Use of metal in medicine

Where is palladium used? Speaking specifically about the medical field, here all kinds of aids for prosthetics are created from this element. It is also used in the manufacture of pacemakers. In addition, palladium is used to treat cancer - it is used in the manufacture of anticancer drugs.

Importance in jewelry

The use of palladium in the jewelry industry is especially important, since products with its participation turn out to be quite attractive and delight the eye not only of beautiful ladies, but also of the opposite sex. As a rule, the metal in question is used as an independent decoration, but sometimes it acts as an addition to silver and gold items. It is not customary to combine it with other precious metals. In addition, products with his direct participation are almost never complemented with valuable stones.

scope of palladium

Palladium in automotive industry

The use of palladium in industry, or rather the automotive industry, is not so widespread. With his participationcatalytic converters are made. Although for several years scientists have been thinking about where else this element can be applied in this area.

Recent statistics indicate that the amount of palladium used in the automotive industry has roughly halved in recent years. Although at the same time its production was increased by more than 25%. The reason for such phenomena lies in the cost of the metal - it is growing along with the needs of the automotive industry.

Other applications

Where is palladium used in industry? The above list of industries is not exhaustive. Such a precious element is also actively exploited in the following areas:

  1. Electrical and electronic. Here, the metal in question takes an active part in the creation of thermostats, capacitors, thermocouples, as well as electrical connectors. All this with the participation of the element in question began to be produced not so long ago. The technology quickly gained popularity, so there are no plans to make any changes in this direction regarding the elimination of palladium at all or the addition of new products based on it.
  2. Chemical. Workers in this industry actively use the element as a catalyst, that is, a special accelerator for certain reactions. Unfortunately, it does not interact with all the elements of the periodic table, but this does not prevent the development of new reactions with its direct participation.
  3. Investment. Oddly enough, palladium has found a beneficial use here as well. Valuable coins are minted from it andused for financial investments.
  4. Food. Here you can also find the element in question. It is sometimes used to create elements of dishes. This is ensured by the well-known fact that the precious metal is chemically neutral. At the same time, the products made with his participation are practically no different from ordinary ones, but their price is an order of magnitude higher.

Pricing

For one gram of pure palladium, you will have to pay at least 1,300 rubles. As for the products in which it is included, it all depends on the percentage of this metal content.

Specialists who buy a precious element independently divide prices in this way:

  • contacts, needles, knitting needles, etc. (palladium content is 18-28%) - about 350 rubles per gram;
  • winding from strings and other things (80% of the element in the composition) - more than a thousand rubles per 1 g;
  • coins (Soviet 5, 10 and 25 rubles - contain about 99.9% of this metal) - from 1400 rubles;
  • scrap radio components (limiters, resistors, Shiv ligature, gas mask filters) - the cost is calculated by the piece, based on weight, category of goods and other characteristics;
  • palladium chloride (brown powder with crystals) – one thousand rubles per kilogram.
palladium properties and applications

Conclusion

Although palladium is considered a rare metal, there is enough information about it to understand what it is. It has many interesting properties and its study is still ongoing. Scrollindustries in which this element can be used is constantly expanding. The cost of palladium is not as high as one might think at first glance, although only a few are in a hurry to purchase such a product.

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