Conceptual approach: definition, methodology and features

Science 2023

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Conceptual approach: definition, methodology and features
Conceptual approach: definition, methodology and features
Anonim

In the learning process, the activity has an educational and cognitive character. That is why the effectiveness of this process depends on teachers' mastery of the basic laws of educational and cognitive activity of schoolchildren. Taking them into account, conceptual approaches to education management are being created.

Theoretical questions

The concept of learning means the sum of generalized provisions or a system of views on understanding the essence, methodology, content and organization of the educational process.

The conceptual approach involves thinking through the activities of teachers and students within the lesson (extracurricular activities).

conceptual approach definition

Concept options

The following types are used in practice:

  • the theory of gradual development of mental concepts and actions;
  • reflex concept;
  • developing education (D. B. Elkonina);
  • theory of problem-based learning;
  • context learning;
  • learning based on Neuro Linguistic Programming;
  • programmed learning theory.

Let's consider in more detail some conceptual approaches to the organization of education and upbringing.

conceptual approaches to management

Associative-Reflex Learning Theory

According to this theory, didactic principles were formulated, many teaching methods were created. The conceptual approach is based on the conditioned reflex activity of the human brain, identified by I. P. Pavlov and I. M. Sechenov. According to their teaching, in the course of a person's life activity, the process of formation of associations - conditioned reflex connections - is carried out in his brain. They are the experience, the life baggage of a person. The individuality of the individual depends on how stable they will be.

On the basis of the doctrine of the physiology of mental activity, well-known scientists, psychologists, teachers A. A. Smirnov, S. L. Rubinshtein, Yu. A. Samarin developed an associative-reflex conceptual approach to training and education. The brief meaning of this theory can be reflected in the following provisions:

  • the formation of skills and abilities, the assimilation of knowledge, the development of personal qualities is the process of education in the mind of simple and complex associations;
  • he has a certain logical sequence.

Among the stages that are typical for this concept, there are:

  • perception of the material;
  • understanding information;
  • saving it in memory;
  • using the acquired knowledge in real practice.

This conceptual approach highlights the active mental activity of the student in solving practical and theoretical learning problems as the main stage of the learning process.

Maximum learning outcomes are achieved if certain conditions are met:

  • formation of a positive attitude towards learning by schoolchildren;
  • provision of material in a clear sequence;
  • fixing it with practical and mental activities;
  • use of knowledge for official and educational purposes.
conceptual approaches to management

Important aspects

The conceptual approach to education involves mastering the learning material. To increase the level of its perception, different analyzers are used: visual, auditory, motor.

The more sense organs a child takes part in the perception of educational information, the easier it is perceived.

Conceptual approaches to education are the basis on which teachers work. It should be borne in mind that in the process of perceiving educational material, the child is able to retain in memory about 6-9 different elements or information blocks.

Other is a background that often makes it difficult to perceive specific information.

Conceptual methodological approaches involve dividing the material into blocks so that you can highlight the main thing, apply underlining, reverseattention to some details.

The activity of understanding the material involves a certain complexity. Thinking "functions" when there is certain material in the mind in the form of examples, facts, concepts, ideas.

To activate the comprehension of educational information, it is important that it be logical, accessible, updated, understandable. That is why teachers use clear wording, drawings, diagrams, comparisons, examples. They provide not only perception, but also comprehension of educational material, as well as its consolidation in memory. For this, both voluntary and involuntary memorization are used.

Since the process of forgetting the information received by the child goes downstream, the teacher must prevent forgetting the material after it has been reported. The teacher understands that the application of knowledge in practice gives an effect only when it is carried out consciously. Otherwise, students will not be able to detect their own mistakes, realize different ways to use knowledge.

conceptual approach to education

Specificity of the associative-reflex theory

Conceptual approaches to research suggest a focus on the mental development of schoolchildren, improving children's creative independent thinking.

This is implemented with the help of game forms of education, which allow children to accumulate various professional associations and improve their intellectual abilities.

Theory of gradual formation of mental concepts and actions

Effective assimilation of skills, abilities, knowledge, development of intellectual qualities is associated not only with the cognitive activity of schoolchildren, but also with the accumulation of methods and techniques of professional activity. In this regard, training on the basis of the theory of the gradual formation of concepts and mental actions gives the maximum effect. Its creators were D. B. Elkonin, P. Ya. Galperin, as well as other psychologists and educators.

Let's highlight the main ideas of this theory:

  1. The fundamental commonality of the structure of external and internal human activities. It is assumed that mental development is a process of mastering skills, knowledge, skills through a gradual transition from the "material" (external) to the mental, internal plan. They are reduced, verbalized, generalized.
  2. Any action is a complex system that consists of components: control, working, control.

How safe are they? Conceptual approaches involve reflecting the conditions that are necessary for the successful implementation of all actions.

Each of them has certain parameters: form, measure of generality, deployment, development.

conceptual approaches to education

OOD

The quality of acquired skills, skills, knowledge, their development depend on the rationality of creating an indicative basis of activity (OOD). It is a graphically or textually executed model of the analyzed action, as well as a system for its effective execution. What parameters are characterized in this contextconceptual approach? Its definition is offered in different interpretations, but their essence is reduced to the search for effective methods and means of training that contribute to the achievement of the desired result.

A simple ODD can be considered an instruction for using the device, which clearly indicates the algorithm of user actions.

Types of indicative base

In the daily learning process, several types of ODD are used. Let's analyze some of them, reveal their distinctive features.

The first type is characterized by an incomplete OOD. In this case, only the executive part of the proposed decision and an example of the final result of the action are indicated. For example, you need to perform laboratory work in physics related to determining the current and voltage in the circuit. The student himself determines the sequence of assembling the electrical circuit, using the instruments and auxiliary materials offered to him. By trial and error, he takes measurements, draws up the results in a notebook, and makes the necessary calculations. Mastering the algorithm for collecting an electrical circuit, the correct inclusion of an ammeter and a voltmeter in it helps the student to master the topic, to acquire stable knowledge.

specifics of education

OOD with landmarks

The second option involves showing the child some specific guidelines, the use of which will help him cope with the task. For example, as part of the practical work in chemistry, the teacher first specifies the reagents that the student can use, then the child begins independent work.This approach contributes to a significant reduction in the time spent by the child to achieve the desired result.

The third variant of the OOD is characterized by the provision of basic guidelines in a general way. It is invariant, optimally suited for the student-centered approach currently used in domestic pedagogy.

teacher with children

When using it, the student independently thinks through and forms a sequence of actions, while acquiring general skills in educational activities. Invariant OOD is actively used by teachers of natural subjects.

Conclusion

When teaching the younger generation new theoretical knowledge, practical skills, it is important to carry out the gradual formation of mental activity. The first step is motivation. Within its framework, schoolchildren develop the necessary cognitive motivation, which helps them master a specific action.

Next, a preliminary acquaintance with the action itself is carried out so that an indicative basis is formed in the minds of schoolchildren. The final result of training depends on the quality of this stage.

At the third stage, students carry out actions according to the curricula used by teachers within a specific academic discipline. The teacher controls and corrects actions. The final step is to analyze your success, which is a condition for the new generation of the Federal State Educational Standard.

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