A word at different levels strengthens and improves the general language system. It is considered the basic basis of the lexico-semantic structure, the elements of which interact and are interconnected. Semantic phenomena in each word have a multilateral character. They reflect the processes taking place in the vocabulary of the language. An important role in the formation of modern logistics is played by a system based on a combination of different lexico-semantic variants (LSV). What is it?
A word is an important, structural unit of a language that serves to characterize various objects and their properties, phenomena, relationships that have a combination of phonetic, semantic and morphological properties. Phonetic structure is a set of sound phenomena, semantic - a set of meanings, morphological - a set of morphemes that form the sound shell of each word.
The semantic structure of a word is an established set of components that form a certain general model in which lexico-semantic variants are interconnected betweenthemselves and match each other. The LSW is a simplex unit. The formal part of it is formed by a certain sound form of the word, and the content is its interpretation. There are different classifications of this process, which differ in special elements and relationships that program a certain approach to the study of this phenomenon.
Several historical facts
Semantics emerged as a modern discipline in the middle of the 19th century. The term was first introduced in 1883 by the French linguist M Brial, who was seriously interested in the problem of the language system. By the beginning of the 20th century, the term appeared in Russia. During this period, the process of development of the morphological structure of the word began.
The formation of the lexico-semantic system took place in the comparative historical period of the development of the discipline, dating back to the middle of the 20th century. At this time, the study of the lexical meaning of terms and their association into special groups in different subject areas took place.
In the Russian language, for the entire time of the existence of logistics, many terms with different lexical meanings have accumulated. Over time, there was a need for their difference and systematization. The science of semantics deals with the study of such words and phrases. The set of lexical-semantic variants of a word (LSV) forms the semantic structure of a word.
LSV words of all terms are collected in different Russian explanatory dictionaries. For example, there are dictionaries by S. I. Ozhegov, D. N. Ushakov, V. I. Dahl and others. Dictionary interpretation isvisual, concrete, directly perceived by others, the meaning of the word. Such theoretical constructions reflect the meaning of each term.
Improvement and development of semantics is of great importance for the modern educational system. Its main goal is to study, systematize, update the lexico-semantic variants of terms. This phenomenon allows enriching and improving the modern Russian language. This category gradually formed during a certain period of the historical development of society.
It displays the meaning of the word, the totality of objective information in the system of relationships, connections, interactions. The process of lexico-semantic variation is a modification of the meanings of the structural units of the language. Semantic phenomena in each word are multifaceted.
They reflect the main processes that take place in the vocabulary of the language. Polysemantic words are an indicator of the functional heterogeneity of a word. There are terms of foreign origin that have different lexical differences. They are taken into account and collected in certain informative sources.
The lexico-semantic variant (LSV) is an integral part of the semantic structure of a word. This phenomenon is a combination of outdated and modern interpretations of each term. Words that have the same lexical meaning are represented by one variant. Polysemantic words are terms that are characterized byseveral options. Semantics, which is part of linguistics, deals with the study of the LSV of the word.
A word is the basic unit of a language denoting objects, phenomena, relationships, actions, etc. The semantic structure of a word includes a set of its semantic meanings. It characterizes the seme composition of each term. The seme is a differentiated, semantic feature that manifests itself when different terms are compared. Its constituent part is the sememe. Experts identify several main ones:
- lexeme or set of lexical meanings;
- gramme or set of grammatical meanings.
The lexico-semantic variant has an internal form that characterizes the national specifics of the language and worldview, characteristic of different peoples. The meanings of LSV in different word structures are not equivalent. They are often considered the reason for the formation of different relationships and relationships between elements that differ in their status. Modern specialists distinguish:
- The main value. It is practically independent of context, limited and presented in the dictionary in the first place.
- Partial value. It is limited in content, conditioned by the context, has a moderate content, and most often appears in the dictionary after the main meaning.
The phenomenon of LSV variation involves the modification of the semantic structure of the word, which has a multilateralcharacter. For example, the heterogeneity and inconsistency of the LSV of a word does not interfere with maintaining the unity of the main lexical meaning of the word. There are several types of links between lexico-semantic variants of a word. Namely:
- Metaphor is the transfer of the properties of one object or phenomenon to another according to the principle of their similarity and difference. This property refers to form, function, location, impression, evaluation, mode of action. For example, "crimson sunset fire", "moon crescent".
- Metonymy is a phrase in which one word is replaced by another. This is the ratio of time and space, sign and thing, process and place, cause and effect, purpose and action, container and content, material and product. For example, "eat three plates", "walk in gold".
- Synecdoche is the transfer of the name of the whole to its part. For example, plum meaning "fruit" and plum meaning "fruit tree".
Advantages and disadvantages
An important advantage of the lexical-semantic structure is its universality. It allows you to systematize the terms of any part of speech and any lexical meaning. It is convenient and easy to use "without leaving home". In our time, the lexical-semantic structure has found popularity in many parts of the world among people of different ages and social status.
However, despite the many advantages, the disadvantages of this phenomenon still exist. Time is notstands in place. With the development of the technological process and the introduction of various innovations, many new terms and phrases with different lexical meanings have appeared. An ordinary explanatory dictionary no longer contains them. There was a need to systematize words on informative media that require frequent updates. There is a need for modern qualified specialists and new financial costs.
There are several approaches to the study of lexico-semantic variants of the meaning of a word. Namely: synchronic and diachronic. The first method is designed to study the main and particular, direct and figurative, extensive and intensive, stylistic and abstract meaning of the word.
The second method allows you to classify the genetic characteristics of the word. These include the original and derivative, etymological and obsolete, archaic and modern meaning of the word. Its analysis is a multifaceted process, which is considered the cause of the formation of various important phenomena in semantics: monosemy, polysemy, paradigms, etc.
This process indicates the presence in logistics of only one lexical meaning, which is characterized by all the formal features of the word. This phenomenon is an indicator of the uniqueness of any semantic structure. There are few such words in Russian. These are most often terms of foreign origin or words with an abstract meaning. The science of lexicology is engaged in the study of this process. Such signs are characteristic of terms: alphabet, letter, oxygen, etc.
There is a point of view that in the Russian language there is no ambiguity, there is unconventionality, which saves the speech and mental potential of any person. This phenomenon constitutes the semantic structure of the word. Modern experts distinguish several types of lexico-semantic variants of polysemantic words, which depend on various factors. Namely:
- scope of use: common and terminological;
- chronology: primary and derivative;
- lexical meaning: literary and non-literary;
- method of nomination: direct and figurative;
- Relationship to content: free and related.
The main types of polysemy are: chain, radial, radial-chain. The first type reflects a certain sequence: each subsequent value is characterized by the previous one. In radial polysemy, all secondary interpretations depend on the direct meaning and are motivated by this property. The third type is characterized by features of both structures.
The main prerequisites for the formation of this process are: changing the system of the Russian language; the emergence of other variants of the Russian language; metaphor and metonymy, etc. For example, wheat field, energy field, activity field.
Meanings of words are able to enter into paradigmatic relations, forming different associations. They are considered potential and are identified on the basis of similarity or difference inmeanings of terms. Paradigms are systematized on the basis of common features and differ in differential properties. Modern specialists distinguish several types of paradigms of lexico-semantic variants (examples prove this). Namely:
- Omonic. This is a systemic association of words identical in graphic form, semantically opposed. For example, light is "electricity" and light is "solar energy".
- Synonymous. An integral feature is the equivalence or similarity of the meanings of synonyms. For example, name: nickname, nickname, initials.
- Antonymous. It is a grouping of words with opposite meanings. For example, joyless and joyful, immoral and moral.
- Thematic. This is a comparable list, which is made up of words that have an integral, explicit form. For example, the verb to move has the forms: ride, crawl, fly, etc.
- Hyponymic. It is a combination of words of species and generic concepts. For example, a snake: verdigris, cobra, viper.
- Lexico-semantic. These are large groups that are united by a common semantic feature. For example, furniture: table, chair, chest of drawers, armchair, etc.
Typologization and invariance
In the Russian language, there are words and phrases that consist only of lexico-semantic variants with typological properties that belong to different systems. The typology of words can be understood in different ways: as the ability of one andthe same LSV to function in different conditions and as a level of development of special LSV words.
Invariance plays a special role in the semantic structure, the signs of which characterize the unity of lexico-semantic variants within a word. These features are associated with a variety of types of meanings: morphological, derivational, lexical, etc. These relationships are dynamic, indicating that the semantic system, despite its stability, is developing, changing, and improving. The combination of elements of the meaning of words with their features is considered an important regularity of the semantic structure, formation, development and functioning of the system of words.