The resources available to the organization (material, temporary and other) are a set of funds that can potentially be used in the process of producing goods, providing services or performing work. In other words, these are the benefits that the enterprise uses to create other benefits. That is why in the literature they are called production resources. These benefits are used by various commercial and non-commercial enterprises, as well as entrepreneurs, household owners.
If we consider economic resources from the standpoint of an economic entity whose activities are aimed at creating a certain group of goods, then they recognize such sources that are necessary for doing business and solving production problems. Such a characteristic is based on the quantitative characteristics of specific resources.
The following resource groups are considered the main types:
They are all extremely important to the enterprise.
Summary of resources
Human resources are at the top of the list. It is people - specialists, managers, maintenance and other personnel - who are the driving force of the enterprise. The efficiency of the company, its competitiveness depends on the level of their training.
Energy and material resources are no less important for the enterprise. Without energy it is impossible to start production. The basis of any product is raw materials, semi-finished products and other material resources.
The temporary reserves of the enterprise are very limited. This resource is unique: it cannot be accumulated. It is impossible to partially spend or stretch the period of its use. Time is irreversible. The rationality of the use of space-time resources directly determines the efficiency of the management of the enterprise.
Equally important is the level of organization of data collection, processing, search, storage, and transmission. The enterprise must have sufficient information resources to conduct activities. Company managers need to know the peculiarities of market conditions, the specifics of competitors, the dynamics of supply and demand. At the same time, Internet data sources must be reliable and official, so that the requested resources do not turn out to be temporarily unavailable. Where possible, multiple sources of information should be used. VariousInternet resources will provide more complete information. And if one resource is temporarily unavailable, you can use another.
An enterprise that does not have sufficient financial resources may remain outside the market. Cash is extremely important for work: it is used to purchase equipment, pay staff. Time and financial resources are closely related to each other. Often, an enterprise uses borrowed funds for development, which will need to be returned. To fulfill your obligations properly, you need to properly organize the workflow. Temporary and financial resources, along with labor, remain today the most important means of production.
In the modern world, an enterprise that introduces advanced technologies into its activities is considered competitive. They allow you to increase productivity, launch new products with high consumer qualities on the market.
This company's time resource management system includes a number of elements, the use of which in combination can significantly optimize the production process. This is achieved by reducing the duration of technological and other operations. In management, temporary resources are considered as a key link in the business. It consists of:
- Analysis of time use.
- Setting goals that management expects to achieve.
- Production planningtime.
- Developing methods to combat the waste of time resources.
Characteristics of elements
Through analysis, managers can identify the facts of irrational use of the organization's time resources and their causes. At the same time, among all the circumstances, the main, most unfavorable ones are established.
A necessary element in the time management system is goal setting. Managers must clearly understand why time management is necessary for the enterprise. The formulation of goals allows you to navigate the methods of time management in the future.
In the course of planning, a list of tasks is compiled, for the solution of which a certain period is allotted. For the correct implementation of functions, the manager must clearly understand how much time resources he has.
The first step in optimizing the organization's time resources should be to assess their current use. It allows you to detect losses, weaknesses and strengths of the working regime. Such an analysis is especially necessary when the enterprise spends significant time resources, and the effect of this is minimal. It is also important in cases where the manager does not know how long it takes to complete certain production operations, what factors can stimulate or limit labor productivity.
To perform the analysis, it is necessary to organize a system of reliable accounting of the time resources of the enterprise. The most effective method today is considered to be keeping records in special journals oron computers. In the latter case, you can use a variety of programs to optimize accounting. The consumption of time resources can also be reflected in tables. They must include the following information:
- Type of activity.
- Duration of transactions performed.
It is best to keep records as you work.
Questions for analysis
To determine the strengths and weaknesses of spending time resources, you should set:
- Was the work done necessary for the company? If it turns out that more than 10% of the time was used for the wrong activity, then the enterprise has a problem with the correct prioritization.
- Was the investment of time resources justified? If more than 10% of cases were not worth the time, then the reasons for this should be understood and analyzed and the results taken into account in the future.
- Has the interval for the implementation of production objectives been reasonably determined? If more than 10% of the time was spent on tasks, the interval for which was set spontaneously, then the organization of time planning is poorly organized in the enterprise.
This analysis allows you to identify the "thieves of time", to establish various errors in the expenditure of time resources, their causes. Based on the results obtained, methods are developed to optimize the entire production process and operations carried out by specific workers.
Basic planning principles
Howpractice shows that it is more expedient to plan only part of the work (60%). Processes that are difficult to predict, distractions cannot be planned entirely. This is due to the specifics of the manager's activity. The fact is that most of the time the manager does not spend directly at the workplace, since it is necessary to interact with contractors and other subjects, to exchange information.
It is necessary to leave a certain amount of time as a reserve. You will need it to work with unexpected clients, telephone conversations, force majeure.
For an effective plan, you need to have a clear vision of your upcoming goals. It is advisable to differentiate them into long-, medium- and short-term, to identify priorities.
Any plan needs to be worked on consistently, systematically and regularly. Started business should always be brought to its logical conclusion.
It is necessary to plan such a list of tasks that the company can really cope with, taking into account its potential, production assets (including material and monetary).
The concept of temporary resources is a program according to which an enterprise can optimize its work without much loss. As one of the mandatory activities, it involves fixing results, not actions. Plans should reflect goals or outcomes, not operations. This is necessary so that the company's efforts are immediately focused on achieving goals, rational use of the project's time resources. This will allowenterprise unscheduled events.
Replenishment of temporary losses is best done immediately. For example, it is better to work longer once than to finish something the next day.
As practice shows, work takes as much time as it is available. In this regard, it is necessary to establish precise norms, to provide in the plan such terms that are really necessary.
It is advisable to periodically recheck and rework the plan, assessing the possibility of complete completion of tasks.
An important factor in planning is the coordination of work modes of different employees.
Planning should be focused on achieving long-term goals. They, in turn, should be broken down into operational parts. Planning reinforces the gradual progress, the decomposition of the main task into private ones. This allows you to distribute different operations in time.
Before developing methods to eliminate the causes of loss of time, it is necessary to identify and analyze them. It should be understood that for typical factors, there are typical methods of control. However, each individual case is different, so an appropriate approach will be needed.
Specific task differentiation
As mentioned above, when planning it is important to divide goals and objectives into groups:
- Long-term. This category includes tasks and goals, the implementation of which is carried out in stages. In other words, to achieve long-termgoals need to complete intermediate tasks.
- Mid-term. They are also called tactical. Such tasks should be implemented soon, but not urgently.
- Short-term (current or operational).
Differentiating goals for the first time is hard enough. But if you constantly practice separation, then later it will be possible to single out short and protracted tasks and goals, to identify the most rational methods of achieving.
A well-designed work schedule will help achieve not only medium-term, but also long-term goals. In addition to optimizing the use of time resources of the project, the correct daily routine allows you to keep the mental state of the team normal. After all, if each employee has a clear and consistent plan, he will feel more confident. There will be no feeling that he does not have time for something, that something distracts him, etc.
The main directions for optimizing the use of time are:
- Ensuring an even workload for the employee.
- Equipment of the workplace with the necessary items and equipment.
- Ensuring a seamless workflow.
- Labor justification.
- Improving production methods and techniques.
- Involving workers in activities in accordance with their qualifications.
- Setting adequate wages.
It involves a quantitative account of the duration of differentactivities. Usually inventory is carried out during a specific period and at certain intervals. In accordance with the results obtained, the analysis of time costs is carried out. The simplest method is to calculate absolute or relative spending by activity. In a more complex analysis, arbitrary coefficients can be used, reflecting the qualitative indicators of time expenditure. With a large amount of information, mathematical and statistical methods are used.
Most of the analytical techniques are used in the inventory, but later they can be used as tools for planning operational and strategic time, monitoring the implementation of tasks.
In general terms, it can be represented as follows:
- Preparation for the procedure.
- Inventory taking.
- Adjustment of management strategy.
It consists of the following steps:
- Definition of the types of time costs, their clear formulation in the form of independent categories for accounting and observation.
- Definition of additional parameters for qualitative assessment.
- Planning the organization of the inventory process. It is necessary to establish the overall duration, frequency, amount of resources. You should also consider a system for quantitative reflection of results, coding indicators, and prepare accounting forms.
Procedure in progressalso in several stages:
- During the established time period, costs are fixed in prepared forms.
- The received data is preliminarily grouped and prepared for further analysis. In particular, qualitative parameters are assessed and quantitative indicators are calculated.
Processing received data
Analysis of time costs can be carried out in different directions. For example, an estimate is made of the expenditure of resources on:
- Main activity. Indicators are determined in accordance with operations, tasks, etc.
- Out of work activities.
- Interference in work.
Volumes and directions of analysis the manager can choose arbitrarily in accordance with the scale of the goals set during the inventory.
The result of the analysis is formulated on the basis of the objectives of the study. These can be simply descriptions of the time spent, their patterns, a forecast of changes in the time management system when exposed to any of its elements, etc.
A typical result of the study is the establishment of patterns associated with the efficiency (or inefficiency) of the use of time resources.
In accordance with the indicators obtained, ways and means of dealing with temporary losses are being developed.
Change in strategy
A new way of time management is developed on the basis of an analysis of ways and means of dealing with time losses, methods moreeffective use of the resource at the stage of formulating goals and planning. The manager must align the objectives and goals that are expected to be achieved in the implementation of the strategy with the plan for the implementation of the main production objectives. All detected non-conformities must be eliminated. If necessary, the company's strategy is reviewed.
Concept of time value of money resources
Its author is I. Fischer, a representative of the neoclassical economic school.
As you know, the same amount at different times can have different values. Today, for example, it can be more expensive than in 3 years. There are a number of reasons that determine the unequal value of money coming in different time periods. Among them, the main ones are:
- Risk of not receiving expected amounts.
- Asset turnover, which is understood as the ability of money to generate income at an acceptable rate for an investor.
Financial resources based on money have a time value. It is considered in 2 aspects:
- Purchasing power. It differs depending on the period, the interests of the consumer and other circumstances.
- The circulation of capital and the extraction of income from this. The purpose of money is to bring money. At the same time, upcoming receipts will have less value than real ones.
Very often it leads to a loss of time. Haste is a state in which the head of the enterprise does not have the opportunity to think about it for a long time.making a decision. As a result, he chooses the first trick that comes to mind. Often this option is far from being the most effective and expedient.
Being in such a state, it is difficult for a person to adequately assess what is happening, to do a quality job. In a hurry, various errors occur that begin to annoy, become the causes of a bad mood. As a result, a person can generally lose his temper, quit the business without bringing it to completion.
Hurry is said to result from not having a plan for the day. A person simply does not know what to do today, tomorrow. There are situations when some tasks appear unexpectedly, and the employee strives to do everything in one day. As a result, labor productivity, the quality of work are significantly reduced, and more time has to be spent on correcting mistakes.
To prevent all these problems, you need to plan every day of work activity.
The need to take work home is a consequence of the illiterate organization of the labor process and the reason for the decline in productivity. This situation may arise due to incorrect prioritization: the solution of priority tasks is postponed until later, and instead of them, operations are performed that are not so important, but, according to the person, are fast. As a result, I have to finish work at home.
Meanwhile, the house is a place of rest. Constant improvements lead to a decrease in the time allotted for communication with the family. A person does not have time to have a good rest, which, in histurn leads to a decrease in labor productivity. Because of this, at the workplace, he needs more time to complete tasks, and he again has to take work home. It will only get bigger over time.
The ability to clearly plan a day, analyze time costs, set priorities is the most important quality of any leader. The time management system ensures the optimization of labor activity, allows you to maintain a favorable atmosphere in the team, and rationally use time resources.
Not a single enterprise can remain competitive, even when using innovative technologies, attracting highly qualified specialists, if the production process is not properly organized. The task of the manager is to timely identify unreasonable time costs and eliminate their causes.