The concept of national security always includes the protection of citizens and territories under the sovereignty of the state. It is believed that the need for it arises in connection with the need for the nation to preserve itself, reproduce and develop with minimal damage to the values common in society in a certain period. There are several basic types and concepts of national security, which will be discussed below.
What is the concept of national security? The answer to this question should be detailed, because it will inevitably include a conversation about the interests of citizens. In political science, there are several basic principles and approaches to the definition of the concept of national security. The most common is the principle that every nation strives not only for preservation, but also for development. It is to ensure conditions conducive to the preservation of basic values that there are variousmeasures that society and the state take to protect themselves.
Another popular definition of national security is based on the leading role of the state in determining national interests. In this case, it is the state power that sets the priority goals and strategy for the development of the nation, state and society. According to this view, it is the state that determines the means of protecting national interests and ways of ensuring security. However, one should not neglect the influence of public organizations on the formation of the current agenda.
However, the concept of threats to national security cannot include exclusively passive ways of ensuring it, therefore, in Russian political science, the term "dynamic security" has become widespread, which describes the ability of society to adapt to changing challenges and threats, as well as to predict and neutralize them. The tradition followed by the Russian political science school pays great attention to the constant monitoring of new threats and challenges.
The concept of the national security of the Russian Federation includes ideas about the state of protection of an individual, society and the entire state from both external and internal threats. At the same time, it is understood that such a state contributes to ensuring the rights specified in the Constitution of the country, namely, a decent standard of living and its high quality.
It is worth noting that the concept of national security has a rather complex structure, fully corresponding to the complexitymodern states and societies with their developed institutions and methods of protection. However, the complexity is offset by the flexibility of the conceptual apparatus.
What does national security consist of?
The state and society complement each other, so the protection of these two entities is an integral part of most public institutions. The concept of national security, the provision of which is a key function of any state, also includes technogenic, environmental, economic, energy and information security. The personal security of citizens is also the responsibility of the state.
All state institutions and organizations are involved in ensuring security: he alth, military and economic. Strictly speaking, political science theory implies the collective participation of the state and citizens in creating favorable conditions for the functioning of society, which is impossible without a sense of security by all the inhabitants of the country.
Thus, all constitutional rights are included in the concept of the national security system, because without he alth and quality education it is almost impossible to provide a decent level of security. Therefore, it is believed that he alth care and education are among the most important industries under state control.
In addition to the priorities and goals determined jointly by the state and society, one of the main concepts of national security is the responsibility that the authorities andinstitutions to citizens. The army and special services are the most important entities that ensure the protection of the country, the people and their values.
Threats to national security
In the Russian Federation, the concept of national security begins with an indication of the need to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country, which are the foundations for the existence of the state. The territory and unity of the country are indeed the basis for the existence of the state, but in the 21st century society faces numerous new challenges.
It is worth bearing in mind that the definition of national security in the new millennium must be revised, since the danger now comes not only from hostile states. Today, specialists in the defense of the state and society name terrorist attacks, organized crime, drug cartels, natural disasters and man-made disasters among the main threats. Climate change, economic inequality, social exclusion and corruption are also considered important sources of instability that threatens societies and states.
Some experts believe that in the new century, priority should be given to the protection of the individual and basic human rights, while sacrificing part of state sovereignty in favor of supranational institutions such as the UN and international courts.
However, the moment of fundamental importance is that the concept and essence of national security is defined differently for different societies. While for one state the priority will be food security and the fight againstepidemic, for another, the protection of the state border and the security of the state apparatus will come first, even if it is ensured by infringing on the rights and freedoms of citizens.
Who provides protection?
Increasingly, states are formulating their ideas and concepts of national security into completed strategies that look like official documents. For example, in 2017 Spain, Great Britain, the USA and Sweden acted. At the same time, each state independently determines for itself the concept and content of national security.
In turn, in Russia there is a permanent constitutional advisory body that deals with expertise on all issues related to the general interests of the state - this is the Security Council of Russia under the President of the Russian Federation. This body is supposed to help the president to carry out his duty to protect national interests by all constitutional means available to him. This implies that threats can be both external and internal.
Although the approaches of different states to the definition of the concept of ensuring national security may differ significantly, historically priority is given to military force, which, in the views of statesmen, is both a source of danger and a way to protect oneself from danger. Therefore, there is nothing surprising in the fact that the military ministries are always the first in the list of state services that ensure state security. In the 21st century, however, this approachneeds serious revision.
Army in defense of national interests
Methods for ensuring military security should also be reviewed. Although air, land and water are traditionally considered as battlefields, new ways of warfare have been opened up in recent decades.
National security systems and the concept of them today increasingly include the ability to counter cyber threats. Entire cybernetic armies have become widespread among the big rich states, whose employees are engaged in hacking the state computer systems of competitors. Special units are also created to protect against such units.
The United States is considered the undisputed leader in the field of computer security and cyber warfare, but China is also showing a noticeable increase in Internet activity. Russia is also often mentioned in connection with cyber threats, especially during the previous US presidential elections, when some Russians were accused of meddling in the electoral process.
Space has recently become an important area for competition, which is associated with the activities of private corporations that have deprived large states of their monopoly on space launches. This allows companies to have their own fairly large constellations of satellites that are not controlled by governments, which does not suit everyone. Also, the system of private launches creates a threat that space technologies will fall into the hands of not always peaceful and far fromdemocratic governments.
Special mention deserves the so-called psychological warfare, which uses the full range of available multimedia technologies to exert psychological pressure and demotivation, as well as to conduct propaganda in order to achieve goals.
Army and national security
Historically, most states organized their armed forces, focusing on aggression from other states. Any definition of a threat to national security includes a danger to state borders, in connection with which border services are of great importance. The vast majority of states, however, organize armies only to protect their own borders.
However, there are also countries that interpret national security more broadly, reserving the right to act by military means even in cases where there is no immediate threat to borders and territorial integrity. This is how France, the United States and Great Britain have historically acted. Germany has for some time been trying to refrain from expeditionary operations, while Russia, on the contrary, has significantly increased the activity of its armed forces abroad, conducting operations in Syria and Africa.
The so-called "force projection" is an important part of the US military strategy to ensure the security of the United States on the far frontier. Such a projection is carried out with the help of the most powerful corps of expeditionary forces, the basis of which is the navy. Carrier groupings capable of operating over long distances asautonomously and with the support of an extensive network of naval bases, provide not only direct military security, but also are an important lever of political pressure on both opponents and allies of America.
Furthermore, the navy ensures the safety of international trade transportation, which is the mainstay of modern American well-being, which clearly demonstrates the inextricable connection of economics, politics and military power in ensuring national security, the systems of which have been established by the beginning of the 21st century.
Two approaches to the public interest
In the Russian Federation, the concept often includes state security, which indicates an obvious bias towards territorial integrity and sovereignty, while the interests of the individual fade into the background.
Although the role of the army and security services is extremely important in ensuring security, one should not underestimate the political and social stability that is created through a predictable political process based on democratic procedures and consensus between state institutions and society.
In case of distrust of citizens to the government, there is a high risk of political destabilization, which may even result in an armed intrastate conflict. Any state must ensure the conditions under which social conflicts will be resolved peacefully.
Such major theorists as Barry Buzan draw attention to the connection of internalstability and political security with the rule of law, but not only domestic. According to some experts, it is impossible to ensure internal order without the respect of the authorities for international law, developed as a result of numerous tragedies of the 20th century.
The concept of the so-called "human security" is becoming more and more widespread among international intellectuals. Such a view challenges the widespread concept of national security as outdated and unresponsive to the challenges of modern times, when it is worth thinking not on a national scale, but giving preference to the interests of the individual, respecting him and striving to ensure his comprehensive protection.
An important component of the concept of Russia's national security is environmental security. It is understood as the whole set of measures taken to reduce and eliminate the negative results of both natural and human impact on the environment.
It is worth noting that the damage caused by human activity to nature has become noticeable not only at the local level, but also on a global scale. Pollution is becoming more and more impressive, posing a direct threat to the life and he alth of millions of people.
More and more people around the world are deprived of access to drinking water and clean air. In many Asian cities with a population of millions, the air has become so polluted that theyresidents use respirators to go outside.
Increasingly, topics such as global warming, biodiversity loss, deforestation and climate change are on the agenda of international summits.
Local conflicts are also based on natural problems. For example, the unwise use of natural resources in Mexico entails an increase in the number of migrants who are sent to the United States. In turn, the widespread use of herbicides and pesticides in developed countries leads to environmental problems in less protected countries.
Environmental security is inextricably linked with food security and the provision of the nation with natural resources, primarily exhaustible. Everyone's right to access to clean water, quality food and fresh air cannot be questioned, yet up to 1.5 billion people around the world are unable to drink clean water.
In Africa, the lack of water resources leads to thousands of victims, and the water in many rivers in China has become undrinkable due to industrial pollution. In this regard, in modern conditions, any system of national security, the concept of which is given by political scientists, should also include the aspect of ensuring basic humanitarian rights.
Security of the economy and finances
The concept of national economic security is given in the federal law "On Security" and calls the priority tasks to ensure the harmonious development of the state,society and the individual. Although the security of economic activity is an integral part of the national strategy, it can be defined as the state of security of economic activity of all entities operating in the country.
It should be said right away that a state of absolute security in the economic sphere cannot exist, since there are always threats coming from both inside the state and outside.
Important factors of economic security are the availability of resources, a sufficient level of infrastructure development, demographic indicators, as well as agricultural potential and the level of government. The role of geographical location and climate is also important.
However, the structure of economic security in the modern world is very complex and is directly related to the infrastructure and financial component. In order to ensure security in these areas, technological solutions are also required based on innovations in the entire production chain, including even management.
An ever-increasing threat to economic activity comes from international organized crime, which uses the latest computer technology to interfere in financial transactions and fraud.
National Security VS Transnational
In an increasingly globalized world, permeated with thousands of different connections and channels of communication, it is of paramount importance to correlate national security with the interests of the individual andsupranational institutions dealing with human rights, the economy and the social sphere.
In Russia, the concept of national security includes priority attention to state interests, including the protection of borders and independence in decision-making. However, this view is increasingly criticized, as the opinion is spreading that the interests of an individual citizen can stand above the ephemeral interests of the nation. The very concept of a nation is also being criticized more and more often, as supranational transcontinental institutions such as numerous UN structures, international courts, humanitarian organizations, private corporations have become widespread.
The current state of the world is described by many economists as a neo-liberal economy in which government regulation is becoming less and less important, and national borders are blurring and becoming barely visible.
In such conditions, goods, services, capital and labor move rapidly and with minimal control, but this state of society also creates many threats. The openness of financial systems makes them vulnerable to hacker attacks and theft of money from the accounts of individuals and companies.
With cheap transcontinental flights, visa-free travel and numerous major international events, the vulnerability of the system to epidemics that no single state can cope with becomes obvious. This state of affairs raises important questions about the limits of openness and transparency, as well as security priorities.
Whilein the interests of transnational security, rather, open borders and free markets, in the interests of the national security of some states, on the contrary, it may be the closure of markets, the restriction of trade, the establishment of barriers and the restriction of migration. This conflict has become more and more obvious in recent years and requires a solution not only from political scientists, but also from politicians, as well as from every citizen.
Thus, the concept of a national security system should, in addition to the military structure, also include concern for the interests of citizens within the country.