Fyodor Apraksin: biography, awards, public service

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Fyodor Apraksin: biography, awards, public service
Fyodor Apraksin: biography, awards, public service
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In Russian history, this man, who was part of the inner circle of Peter the Great himself, was remembered both as a talented naval commander and as a competent manager. Fedor Apraksin was absolutely deservedly awarded the title of Admiral General and the post of President of the Board of Admir alties. It is impossible to overestimate his services to the fatherland: he, along with the tsar, took part in the creation of the Russian fleet. It was Fedor Apraksin who won a number of battles at sea and on land, which were of strategic importance. What was remarkable in the biography of the famous Admiral General? Let's take a closer look at this issue.

Origin

Apraksins have long occupied a privileged position in society. Sources for the first time reliably mention them in the first half of the 17th century. Back in 1617, the ancestor and namesake of the naval commander Fyodor Apraksin was a deacon of the order of the Kazan Palace. In 1634, he also served as a deacon for Boris Lykov, who was the son-in-law of Tsar Mikhail Romanov. Fyodor Apraksin, being childless, died in 1636. But his brother Peter had offspring. We are talking about the son of Vasily Apraksin, who served the king himself. It was in the family of Vasily Petrovich that the offspring Matvey appeared - the father of the eminent naval commander. Matvei Vasilievich himself"governed" in Astrakhan. Three sons and a daughter were born in his family. Peter Matveyevich was in the service of the sovereign as a privy councilor, and then a senator. Fyodor Matveyevich was an associate of Tsar Peter I, Andrei Matveyevich was an oberschenk with the monarchs. But the daughter Marfa Matveevna Apraksina became the legal wife of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich. This marriage to a certain extent predetermined the career of all the sons of Matvey Vasilyevich.

Fedor Apraksin

But, having become the second wife of the monarch, Marfa Matveevna Apraksina soon became a widow and lost her status as queen. But this did not stop her brothers from building a career in the state apparatus.

Stolnik of the king

He was born on November 27, 1661. From a young age Apraksin F.M. served as a steward for Peter I. And it should be noted that he had worthy competitors. In particular, we are talking about Prince Fyodor Yuryevich Romadanovsky. He was also a close steward. And if Apraksin created amusing troops, then Romodanovsky was their generalissimo. After some time, the tsar became interested in "battle games", so the number of soldiers in the regiments formed specifically for the amusements of Peter I increased significantly. One way or another, but the amusing troops became a serious step towards reforming the Russian army, and Apraksin's merit in this matter is obvious.

Voevoda

However, Fedor Matveyevich will receive even greater favor from the tsar when he builds his first ship.

funny troops

In 1692 he was appointed governor in Arkhangelsk. After some time, Apraksin will comecame up with the idea to build a ship that could successfully carry out commercial business at sea. The Russian emperor was completely delighted with this idea and personally took part in the laying of the cannon frigate "Saint Apostle Paul". Apraksin F.M. devoted his time to the beautification of the city. In particular, he strengthened the defense of Arkhangelsk and increased the territory of the Solombala shipyard. In just a few years of governorship in the "land of the European North", he was able to raise the military and merchant shipbuilding industries to a new level of development. Moreover, he introduced the practice of sending Arkhangelsk ships abroad for commercial purposes.

New ranks

At the beginning of the 18th century, Fyodor Matveyevich was assigned to manage affairs in the Admir alty Order. In addition, he becomes the Governor of Azov. Apraksin spends a lot of time in Voronezh, where he is working hard to create a fleet that would cruise through the Sea of ​​Azov. At the mouth of the Voronezh River, he intended to lay another shipyard.

Apraksin F.M

In Taganrog, Fyodor Matveyevich planned to equip the harbor and build fortifications, in the village of Lipitsa, located on the right bank of the Oka, Apraksin conceived the construction of a cannon casting plant. In Tavrov (Voronezh region), a state dignitary wanted to create an admir alty and equip the docks. In the Sea of ​​\u200b\u200bAzov, he decided to start hydrographic work. And all his above-mentioned undertakings were crowned with success.

President of the Admir alty Board

Naturally, the colossal work done by Apraksin is notremains unnoticed by the main ruler of the Russian state. Peter I highly appreciates the merits of his steward. In 1707, Fedor Matveyevich was awarded the title of Admiral General and appointed to the post of President of the Admir alty College. He is entrusted with personal command of the B altic Sea flotilla and several military units on land.

Success in military affairs

In 1708, Admiral General Apraksin led the Russian corps in Ingermanland, which prevented the Swedish army from capturing the "city on the Neva", Kotlin and Kronshlot. Fedor Matveyevich was able to destroy Stromberg's corps near the village of Rakobor (formerly Wesenberg).

General - Admiral Apraksin

Almost three weeks later, the president of the Admir alty College in Kapor Bay defeated the Swedish troops led by Baron Liebeker. Naturally, such triumphant victories were celebrated at the highest level. Fyodor Apraksin was awarded the title of count and received the position of real privy councillor. In addition, Peter I instructed the masters of the Mint to make a silver medal depicting a bust portrait of the famous commander and naval commander.

Triumphant victories continue

And then Fedor Matveyevich once again distinguished himself on the battlefield. The commander, having 10 thousand soldiers in his arsenal, laid siege to Vyborg and took the fortress. For this operation, he received the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, as well as a premium sword made of pure gold and decorated with diamonds. Then Apraksin was transferred to the Azov lands, where he destroyed earliererected fortifications and sold merchant ships. The fact is that Azov in 1711 came under the jurisdiction of Turkey. After that, the Admiral General spent some time in St. Petersburg, but already in 1712 he was appointed to command the infantry, which went on a campaign to return part of the Finnish lands. The commander conquered the territory, starting from Vyborg, where in 2010 a monument to Fyodor Apraksin was solemnly opened, and ending with Yarvi-Koski. And soon after that, the steward of Peter the Great, commanding galleys at sea and infantry on land, was able to besiege Helsingfors (the capital of Finland). In the autumn of 1713, Apraksin won a battle with the Swedes in the vicinity of the Pyalkan River. Of course, for this brilliant victory, the Admiral-General could well receive another Order of St. Andrew the First-Called.

Gangut

But the laurels of the winner were ahead. In 1714, the commander and head of the Admir alty Board was once again able to demonstrate to the enemy the strength and power of the Russian army.

Victories of the Russian fleet

We are talking about the famous naval battle with the Swedes, which unfolded at Cape Gangut. Apraksin had 99 galleys and scampaways at his disposal, which accommodated a total of 15 thousand Russian soldiers. Fedor Matveyevich and his soldiers were supposed to provide access to the Aland Islands and the Abo region. However, these plans were thwarted by the Swedish fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Vatrang, who ordered his soldiers to gain a foothold near the Gangut peninsula. To minimize the chance of redeployment of Russian galleys through the previously created wooden flooring,located in the narrow part of the peninsula, the Swedes had to divide the flotilla into several parts. This was a strategic mistake, because by disengaging, the enemy ships became more vulnerable to attack. Russian galleys were able to cross the peninsula from the sea and partially attack the ships of the enemy squadron. Some time later, a decisive confrontation of forces took place in the Rylaks Fjord Strait. The Russian fleet was stronger and won. The entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia was free, and access to the Aland Islands was open. A few months later, the eastern lands, located along the Gulf of Bothnia, went to Russia. Almost all of Finland ended up in the hands of Emperor Peter I.

Return to the capital

However, soon Fedor Matveyevich was suddenly recalled to the capital. The thing is that the tsar found out that officials from the inner circle of the Admiral General were abusing their powers and stealing money from the treasury. During the reign of Peter I, embezzlement was a fairly common phenomenon, which was brutally suppressed by "special authorities". But Apraksin himself, unlike other dignitaries, was not a greedy and greedy person, he had enough state salaries for the needs of his family.

President of the Admir alty College

And the investigators, indeed, did not find evidence that would indicate that the famous military leader was stealing government money. But Apraksin's subordinates were convicted of this. However, the tsar, who always remembered the merits of Fyodor Matveyevich to the fatherland, did not severely punishhis steward and ordered him only to pay a fine.

The Case of the Tsarevich

At the same time, the Apraksins repeatedly proved their devotion to the sovereign. For example, we are talking about the story when the offspring of the Tsar Alexei in 1716, without warning anyone, went to live in Austria. The son of the emperor thus decided to demonstrate the rejection of the reforms and transformations of Peter I. Only the diplomats Tolstoy and Rumyantsev managed to persuade Alexei to return to his homeland and confess for his act. Naturally, the sovereign wanted to teach the negligent offspring a lesson and ordered him to be kept in the Peter and Paul Fortress until he came to his senses. However, Alexei neglected the interests of the fatherlands and leaned to seek Austrian citizenship not alone, but in the company of like-minded people. By coincidence, Pyotr Matveyevich Apraksin turned out to be in their circle. But investigators ultimately found no evidence of his guilt. However, this unpleasant incident with his brother was hard on Fedor Matveyevich, who was a direct eyewitness to the interrogations of the prince. As a member of the commission of inquiry, the Admiral General, along with other dignitaries, signed the guilty verdict concerning the heir to Alexei. The prince was sentenced to death.

Campaigns against Sweden and military operation in Persia

After the victorious battle at Gangut, the head of the Admir alty Board, managing the skerries of Stockholm, periodically cruised the coastal territory of Sweden, destroying foreign ships and collecting tribute from the territory. King Frederick I was forced to compromise with Russia by signing an unfavorablefor Sweden, the Treaty of Nystadt. And Fedor Matveyevich was awarded a high naval award (Kaiser flag).

Monument to Fyodor Apraksin

In 1722, the commander set off on a campaign against Persia. He personally led the Russian ships, plowing the expanses of the Caspian Sea. In 1723, Apraksin returned to his homeland and was given command of the B altic Fleet.

After the death of the great reformer

When Emperor Peter I died in 1725, his former steward continued to occupy a high position at court. In 1725, Catherine I herself granted Apraksin the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. Soon the wife of Peter the Great transferred most of the state affairs to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Privy Council, which later included Fyodor Matveyevich. But the first violin in this governing body was played by Prince Alexander Menshikov. Meanwhile, Russian ships were gradually breaking down, and their modernization and maintenance required financial allocations, which, unfortunately, were allocated in insufficient quantities. Under such conditions, Apraksin began to go to sea less often, although the great victories of the Russian fleet were still fresh in his memory. Only in 1726 did the general-admiral agree to lead Russian ships to Revel in order to demonstrate the military power of Russia to confronting England.

Career sunset

When Emperor Peter II ascended the Russian throne, the Dolgorukovs, who were somewhat alienated from the Apraksins, began to manage state affairs in the country. Fedor Matveyevich decided to leave the civil service and settled in Moscow. Behindfor many years in power, Apraksin amassed a fairly large fortune. The steward of Peter I owned palaces and estates, owned vast land, and possessed unique valuable things. Who got all this according to the will of the Admiral General? Since he had no children, Fyodor Apraksin divided everything he acquired among his relatives, and he donated a luxurious household in St. Petersburg as a gift to Emperor Peter II. Apraksin died on November 10, 1728. The body of the state dignitary was buried on the territory of the Zlatoust Monastery in Moscow. The father of the President of the Admir alty Board is also buried there. Leaving a major mark in Russian history and possessing such rare qualities as kindness, diligence, truthfulness, he turned out to be one of the main assistants of Peter the Great in reforming the Russian state.

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