In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the problems of population reproduction came to the fore. Family state policy is called upon to solve them. But this is far from the only issue she deals with. Additionally, quality issues are also considered, in other words, the formation of human capital.
Considering the current situation? should start in the 90s. The reforms carried out at that time had an ambiguous impact on the general population. The changes of that time turned into profound changes in the life of families. So, there was a sharp and at the same time large-scale mass impoverishment and differentiation of family incomes. As a result, the existing disorganization of their lives deepened. In addition, the established moral and ethical traditions and norms were destroyed, and the instability of marriages increased. The concept of state family policy is called upon to solve emerging problems. This term has been usedrelatively recently - somewhere in the late 80s of the last century. But the decisive role in the dissemination of this phrase in the media and literature was most facilitated by the development and subsequent approval by the National Council in 1994 of the “Concept of the State Family Policy”. The use of this term in the title of the document (even though it has the status of a non-state), mailing on behalf of the government to the regions - all this played a significant role in its approval.
What is the state family policy in the Russian Federation?
This is part of the mechanisms and decisions that are aimed at influencing society and its development. It is an integral system of principles, measures and assessments of a scientific, informational, organizational, economic, legal, propaganda and personnel nature. As a result, the goal is to improve living conditions and improve the quality of life for families. After all, a he althy, law-abiding and prosperous unit of society is both the backbone of the state and the basis of harmony in society.
In addition, it contributes to social and political stability. Therefore, it is not surprising that the concept of the state family policy of the Russian Federation also provides for a certain regulation of the relationship between the cells of society and the institutions of power. At the same time, all spheres of life are covered - science, production, army, government. After all, the people who do all this do notonly their official, but also family obligations. Therefore, in order to solve the problems of strengthening relationships and accepted values, supporting the interests of individuals in the process of social development, creating optimal conditions for the implementation of their functions, a certain adjustment of the situation is carried out by the state.
So, first of all, the existence of social rights and the need for their legislative consolidation are recognized. At the same time, the family is given a full-fledged status, as a result of which its interests are purposefully taken into account in the framework of the process of development of society. It is envisaged that the activities of the authorities, the implementation of federal and regional programs should be carried out with an eye on this moment. The legislation included a set of legal norms that regulate in great detail the issues of relations between family members, as well as the unit of society itself with the state.
On challenges and finding solutions
The concept of the state family policy of the Russian Federation provides that in order to achieve a satisfactory situation in this area, one should take into account ethnic characteristics, different religions, the likelihood that a conflict of interest may result in an interethnic confrontation.
One cannot assume that the current problems of the moral and economic revival of society and its modern cells are insoluble in principles. The implemented family policy is a certain ideology. It is expressed in the main directions, the system of goals andprinciples of carrying out activities of power-holding structures. It is an organic part of the social mechanisms of influence. In addition, the challenges that affect the economic, social, legal, medical, environmental, psychological and informational life of families are taken into account. All possible problems must be considered from the position of regulation and coordination. That is why family policy covers absolutely all institutions of society that are somehow involved in solving the problems of the cell of society and its members.
If we talk about the global purpose, then this is the harmonization of relations between the family and the state, the transfer from passive consumers to an autonomous position and the formation of an active creative creator of oneself, and at the same time of the whole society. Conducting a competent policy allows you to combine common properties and tasks, as well as select ways to solve various individual and typical family problems.
What about principles?
No need to think that the Russian state family policy is doomed to failure and will not be able to resolve the challenges it faces. That's quite possible. Based on certain fundamental principles. Thanks to them, the state and its institutions of power may well succeed in this vital matter:
- Realistic. The effectiveness of the social policy pursued directly depends on it. There are many factors that affect the stability of the formed marriage and family relations. Therefore, it is important to choose exactly what you caninfluence today or at least in the near future. For example, you can focus on the family performing its inherent functions, effectively helping the marginalized cells of society, improving the quality of relationships, and similar aspects.
- We need a proportionate approach to different types of families. One of the most notorious common shortcomings in the implementation of modern family policy is its abstract and open-ended nature. This is not good. After all, it is necessary to classify them and develop such approaches so that they take into account the characteristics of specific types of families, their specific needs and problems.
- Family policy should systematically solve such tasks as strengthening the cell of society and accepted values, ensure its interests in the process of social development, create the necessary conditions for the implementation of its functions, promote predominantly independent livelihood and help socially vulnerable elements.
Here's what, in short, can be said about the principles of state family policy.
The family in human society is a natural and familiar primary cell. This is the most important social value, a fundamental institution. Also, the family is a kind of system for supporting the rights of each member of it. To perform this function, family ties and interaction of close groups are essential. The family allows its members to provide social, physical and economic security. So,conditions are being created for the socialization of children and youth in society.
Besides this, one cannot fail to mention the care of minors, the sick and the elderly. Russian state family policy should act as a catalyst for the implementation of these functions. It should create conditions for directing the family towards peaceful coexistence. The goal of the current policy is to develop and strengthen this way of life, as well as to improve the level of well-being. In the latter case, it is not necessary to mean exclusively "welfare". After all, well-being is used not only to denote material security, but simply a happy life, in which most moments are quite satisfying. It should be noted that the successful achievement of the designated goal is difficult due to the presence of a number of contradictions that the concept of implementing the state family policy has:
- It is necessary to have a high-quality scientific justification for making managerial decisions in family policy. At the same time, there is an insufficient level of rational development of the problem at the regional level.
- It is necessary to strengthen the substantive and targeted approach to social policy. At the same time, there is not enough data on the basis of which the socio-demographic situation of individual families is characterized.
More about contradictions
The matter, alas, is not limited to the above two points only:
- The position of the family in society has a globaland fundamental importance. At the same time, we can talk about the detachment of many state structures and institutions from the implementation of rational family policy.
- Opportunities to increase the family's own potential in solving social problems using volunteer assistance. Alas, public organizations in the field of family policy have launched an insufficient level of activity.
- It is necessary to increase the independence and activity of the individual in modern social relations. But at the same time, alas, we have to say that a significant part of the citizens had an openly dependent position.
- The country is experiencing a growing depopulation, deepened by a population crisis. The indigenous ethnic group has been dying out for three decades, moreover, in 2018, even three hundred thousandth migration flows could not maintain the number of people at least at the same level. At the same time, there is no pronounced pro-family approach in the ongoing economic reforms.
As you can see, the implementation of the state family policy is not carried out smoothly. To overcome these contradictions, the goals and objectives to be pursued should be clearly defined. It is necessary to work to strengthen and develop the social institution of the family. This can be both the creation and provision of the conditions required for the best performance of the basic functions, and economic, reproductive, adaptive, protective and psychological support. But all this is possible only if there are certain actions on the part of society and the state aimed at the family. important inthis business is to encourage those who demonstrate a positive example of the growth of sustainable prosperity, stability, leave many children, take part in the development of creative projects, create a positive atmosphere.
About tasks and measures
The goal of the state family policy can be successfully achieved by implementing the following long-term provisions:
- Improvement of legislation.
- Mobilization of available financial resources to support families with the required level of social rights (these are education, he alth care, housing, etc.).
- Formulation of effective mechanisms for self-sufficiency of the cells of society in the current socio-economic conditions. For example, this may be the creation of the necessary conditions to ensure the full employment of all able-bodied family members, allowing them to achieve and maintain the desired standard of living.
- Formation of the subjectivity of a cell of society when using available opportunities while solving existing problems. This is especially true for overcoming dependency and consumerism within society.
- It is necessary to provide organizational and material conditions for family planning. Formation of favorable conditions for the birth and subsequent upbringing of he althy children, protection of motherhood and paternity, providing children at a certain level.
- Development and improvement of traditional and formation of new approaches to promote family well-being. It includes the development of a social support system, strengthening the resource base,improving the situation with mental challenges.
- Creating conditions that will help children receive adequate upbringing and education, and prevent child neglect and delinquency.
- Providing various opportunities, developing a system of support structures that allow us to provide the necessary conditions for resolving emerging crises.
- Formation of favorable public opinions about the family and related lifestyle, promotion of relevant values.
More about the situation in the country
The state family policy of Russia should be seen as something more than just social support for cells of society that are in a difficult life situation. It should contribute to the strengthening of ties and an acceptable way of life. And also spread the phenomenon called "successful family." How is it proposed to do this?
The state family policy in the Russian Federation has now been worked out until 2025. It spells out the planned quality of life standards, approaches to addressing development and protection issues, and much more. It serves as a guideline for federal government bodies and local self-government when issues of life support, socialization, ensuring rights and interests are resolved. What can be said about priorities? Especially to focus attention on them, the main directions of state family policy were highlighted. An example is the reduction of poverty,overcoming negative trends, stabilizing financial situation.
Moreover, indirect instruments of influence are often used in this case. For example, they improve the situation on the labor market, reduce unemployment (including hidden unemployment), strengthen job security, stimulate job creation, provide vocational training, and provide various tax and other benefits. Decisions made can be both permanent and calculated for certain periods. The state family policy also supports the development of self-employment, farming and entrepreneurship involving the labor of all members of the social unit. At the same time, conditions are provided for the actual equality of opportunities and rights of men and women in the labor market.
About the current situation in the country
What else can be said about the direction of the state family policy? At the moment, they are developing a system of benefits that are aimed at supporting the entire family with minor children. The state also ensures that alimony is paid in full and on time. This topic is also touched upon in the housing reform in terms of housing provision. For example, there are numerous private subsidy and lending programs for families who build or purchase their own property. Various benefits are provided for those with many children, incomplete children, as well as those cells of society in which there are disabled people.
Also, a priority direction of the state family policy is to provide workers with childrenfavorable conditions for combining work with the performance of their duties. Benefits related to the upbringing of children apply to the mother and their father (adoptive parent). The legal protection of family members who are involved in the labor sphere is prescribed in the legislation and controlled by the state. In order to increase the interest of organizations in hiring citizens with a high family load, various economic incentives and benefits are introduced. At the same time, attention is paid to the qualifications of people who have a break in their labor activity associated with childbirth and maternity leave. To ensure the harmonious development of children, out-of-school institutions, kindergartens, and summer camps are organized. It is also worth mentioning the socio-medical support for families in our country. The main provisions include a focus on improving he alth care, accessibility, assistance to pregnant women, women in childbirth and children under 18 on a free basis.
Prescribed medical measures
As for the plan of the state family policy in the field of medicine, here even a simple enumeration will take a long time. So, we can recall the medical genetic assistance, the improvement of perinatal technologies, sanatorium treatment, rehabilitation, prosthetics, the creation and production of special devices, simulators, furniture, wheelchairs, sports equipment. The activities of social service institutions are also supported. They specialize in servicefamilies in need of assistance, individual members in crisis situations, pregnant women, mothers with children and similar categories of the population. These institutions provide legal and psychological support and information.
Efforts are also being made to provide high-quality he alth education, especially to adolescents, on sex education, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and safe motherhood. In addition, psychological and pedagogical assistance is also provided for raising children in the family. To do this, the state implements the following measures: it finances support for the publication of mass circulations and the further distribution of books that consider the upbringing of a child and caring for him. Attention is also paid to the problems of family relations. Special literature is distributed for young people and parents who have their first child. All this literature, like many others, is sent for acquisition of mass libraries. In addition, a ban has been introduced on the manufacture and distribution of products that promote the cult of violence/cruelty and pornography. Provides state financial support and coordination of ethical, moral and environmental education.
Specific principles underlying
So, now that so much information is already known, we can draw conclusions about what the implemented concept of family policy is based on. In short, these are the principles:
- Family sovereignty. This means that it is independent ofof the state and can make decisions that relate to her life, guided solely by her own interests and goals. But this is possible only within the framework of the current legislation. In fact, this means that the right to any type, image, style of family behavior, except for criminal ones, is provided. The principle of sovereignty assumes that the family has an appropriate economic basis. That is, it can extract and use income from legitimate activities, and sufficient for its own self-sufficiency and development.
- The principle of freedom of choice. It presupposes the existence of a genuine alternative and the possibility of choosing any type of family and family behavior. The state and society are interested in the fact that the family acts in such a way that their interests are best satisfied while ensuring the quantitative / qualitative characteristics of the population, allowing for the successful socialization of the younger generation.
- The principle of the social contract. It provides for the regulation of relations between the family and the state, formulates mutual rights and obligations.
- The principle of social participation. This means that other subjects, besides the state, can take part in the implementation of family policy. Examples include public organizations, parties, commercial firms and other civil society institutions.
- Unity of family policy goals. This means that all the basic principles are valid on the territory of the whole country, regardless of the specific characteristics of the cell of society and the adopted in it.behavior.
A few words in conclusion
So the state family policy is considered. The periods of its formation and initial formation have been successfully considered. But it is still too early to put an end to this and send it to the archive. After all, the state family policy is constantly being improved and developed, what is relevant now may change beyond recognition in a decade or even be eliminated over time. This also needs to be considered.