What are the methods of collecting material, the tasks and goals of undergraduate practice? The article provides detailed information about this. Two ways of registration of results of practice - reports are offered. Recommendations are given for complex cases that arise during the internship. The role of those responsible for the practice on the part of the university and organization is indicated.
The importance of training practices is hard to deny, since even a very well-trained theoretical specialist almost always loses to a skilled practitioner who has been working in this place for a long time.
The purpose of the student's undergraduate practice. What is it for?
Compared to other types of educational practices, the pre-diploma goal is special: to collect material for writing the final student's own scientific work. Showing how much he has mastered the training program for all the years as a whole, what are his skills in working with theoretical sources and how he operates with real facts onhis profession. This is the main, but not the only goal.
Even during the practice, the student should get to know the enterprise or organization closer in order to understand what kind of work he would like and can do, what profession and speci alty, if there is a choice, he will get what kind of job at the enterprise will choose. This is the second one.
The trainee must also determine what size, legal form and other features of the enterprise or organization are more suitable for him personally with his skills and personality: a large holding company or a small state-owned enterprise, work related to business trips or work closer to home and so on. This is the third goal of undergraduate practice. One more will be discussed below. It is worth learning more about her.
Guidelines for undergraduate practice
. And for each graduate speci alty. The guidelines include samples and requirements for the following documents:
- report on undergraduate practice at the enterprise;
- internship diary;
- characteristics of a student from the place of internship.
Head of undergraduate practice and his paymentwork
Ideally, a student should have two practice leaders: from the university and the enterprise. To do this, a few months before the internship, an agreement is concluded between the enterprise and the university on the acceptance of a specific student for internship for a certain period with the provision of an internship supervisor from the enterprise.
Ideally, the university should provide students with places for undergraduate practice in order to confirm learning outcomes and supervise the entire process of collecting material for the final work. In reality, it turns out that no one needs students at the enterprise, the head of practice from the enterprise is only recognized when the report and characteristics are signed, acquaintance with the enterprise did not take place.
To prevent this from happening, we can recommend the following practice leader from the university:
- carefully and seriously select a place for internship;
- be sure to conclude agreements with enterprises in advance, monitor the issuance of an order to appoint a head of practice for these students;
- supervise the student's internship from the very beginning, getting to know the head of the internship from the enterprise, the conditions of the student's internship, the possibility of collecting information and other things;
- help student interns solve their problems.
Paying the work of practice leaders from the university and the enterprise is also of great importance, although sometimes a selfless person can be a more valuable leader. Such people are rewardedonly satisfaction from the work done and respect for students.
If the enterprise does not agree to accept students with whom there is really a lot of fuss, you can offer students as specialists directly to the workplace, ready to work for free, but asking in return to provide the necessary materials for the enterprise. As a rule, the reports of the students who have worked are more interesting and complete. Very often, a student who likes is invited to work where he did his undergraduate practice. So a good student himself finds a job. Here is another goal of undergraduate practice - the opportunity to find a job in a highly competitive environment.
For the preparation of guidelines for undergraduate practice, departments are recommended to use developments for each speci alty issued by the Ministry of Education and its structural divisions.
The components of the report will be:
- goal and objectives of undergraduate practice;
- collection of materials on the work of the enterprise: raw materials, products, cost, personnel, structure and management scheme and others, depending on the speci alty of the student;
- violations and shortcomings in the work of enterprise divisions;
- recommendations for improving the work of the unit where the internship took place.
The practice report must be signed by the head of practice from the enterprise, his signature is certified by the seal of the enterprise, where its name is visible. From the universityThe report is signed by the head appointed by the order of the university. If the main goal of undergraduate practice is fulfilled.
The material on the work done does not have to be in the form of a narrative. It will be interesting, for example, a report in the form of an interview with a specialist answering questions from a student-trainee. Other forms of reporting are acceptable as long as they are consistent with the goals and objectives of the assignment.
Practice Diary (DP)
The DP must be checked and signed by the head of the enterprise. The penultimate week in the DP should contain information about the acquisition of practical skills by the student. The latter is marked as a progress report.
Characteristics of the student from the place of internship
A student's profile is an important part of an internship report. It should not only characterize how the student's theoretical knowledge was consolidated by practice, but also note the shortcomings in the student's level of preparation in various areas, as well as ways to eliminate them. However, this information is almost always missing from the description. Usually, only a listing of the student's personal qualities is made, and not the levels of his training and obtaining practical skills at the enterprise.
Secret information and its use in the diploma
Admission of students to the information of an enterprise or organization is a very delicate topic because sometimes managers and specialists themselves are poorly versed in what is a trade secret for an organization and what is not. Therefore, it is recommended that practice leaders from an organization or enterprise not give trainees any information. But students working in such enterprises automatically get access to any information, since it is not divided into public and secret. This is another advantage of students working during practice at workplaces in their speci alty. If the necessary information is really secret, the head of the university is recommended to change the base of practice.
Problems faced by students during internships
A few main ones:
- violation of the terms of the practice, when, according to the order, the pass to the enterprise is closed, and all the information has not yet been collected;
- inability to collect information for any objective reason (closure of the enterprise, its inspection by regulatory authorities, lack of information necessary for this speci alty or this topic of the diploma, and more);
- conflict between a student and representatives of the practice base;
- illness of a student or head of practice.
All these problems should be solved by the head of practice from the university, who has the opportunity to replace one place of internship with another at the request of the student.
Choosing a topic for writing a thesis and pre-graduation practice
The choice of a topic for a diploma directly depends on the place of internship. If the topic of the diploma is interesting to the student, he can choose several practice bases for collecting material. Then one place of practice will be the base, where the student will draw up a report, a diary and receive a description, but the head of the practice must agree with other practice bases on providing materials to the student.
Very often the topic of the diploma is suggested to the student by the head of practice from the enterprise or from the university, sometimes the student himself decides which topic to choose depending on the amount and type of material collected in practice. Sometimes (unfortunately, rarely) the topic of the diploma helps to solve the problem of the practice base, is implemented and considered by the enterprise as a completed work with an award and an invitation to the author to work.