At the moment, the requirements for the structure of basic educational programs are changing in the Russian Federation. This is due to the entry of our country into the European education system. This process is characterized by serious changes in the organization of the educational process.
Relevance of introducing new standards
The structure of the main educational program of the Federal State Educational Standard has been changed to meet the requirements that society imposes on the modern way of obtaining knowledge. The educational paradigm has been changed, new content, approaches, methods, and the teacher's attitude to his professional activity have been introduced. All these innovations are caused by social order - education in the younger generation of civic engagement and social responsibility.
The main educational program has changed significantly. The structure and content of academic disciplines are enriched with innovative discoveries. The emphasis is on the individualization of development and education,building individual trajectories of movement for each child.
Features of changes
The structure of the main educational program involves the transition from traditional methods (written and oral speech) to computer technology. The personality-oriented approach to the younger generation is defined as the main component of the pedagogical process within the framework of the Federal State Educational Standard.
The main requirement for the structure of the educational program is the allocation of an explanatory note, setting goals, tasks, including thematic planning, indicating requirements for the level of graduate training.
Special attention within the framework of the new teaching standards is given to the spiritual education of children, the formation of morality and civic engagement in students.
The requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard for the structure of the educational program help teachers to make thematic planning for academic disciplines, to determine the features of educational work with class teams.
Currently, the principle of variability is used in domestic pedagogy. It enables the teams of educational organizations to choose and model the educational process according to any model.
The structure of the main educational program involves the use of the achievements of modern didactics, taking into account the individual characteristics of each child, the rationale for the selected pedagogical methods and forms.
Requirements for the structure of the maineducational programs comply with the Law of the Russian Federation "On Education". Only with the correct preparation of the program, the school educates and educates the younger generation in the interests of the state and society. This process is accompanied by a statement of the achievement of educational qualifications by schoolchildren, which are established by the state.
Education means confirmation or achievement of a specific level, which is indicated for each academic discipline by the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard.
School should instill in children a positive interest in self-education and self-learning. To achieve this goal, the structure and content of the educational program were changed.
The challenge of modern society
The main requirement for the structure of the educational program is to form an active person who respects the culture and traditions of his people, as well as the views and customs of the population of other countries. This led to the identification of three foundations of the modern process of education and upbringing:
- teach to learn;
- teach how to live;
- teach how to work.
When analyzing the causal relationships that exist in domestic education, it is necessary to take into account such a factor as the level of the teacher. The introduction of a professional teacher standard is a way to motivate self-development for teachers.
Since pedagogy is a field of human activity, it presupposes the existence of subjects and objects. The child is allocatedthe role of the object to which the teacher transfers his experience and knowledge. It is necessary to take into account, thinking over the content of the subject, that the work is carried out with individuals who have certain social and hereditary elements.
Each child has a certain level of thinking, memory, imagination, perception, sensations, which should be taken into account in pedagogical activity.
The structure of educational standards and programs is considered by the school staff. At the same time, the characteristics of children should be taken into account, talented and gifted schoolchildren, as well as children with he alth problems, should be identified, and the motivation of students should be assessed.
The administration attracts speech therapists, psychologists, and medical staff to work. Only with such an approach to the problem can one expect effective results.
The state and quality of teaching, the success of the implementation of the program of an educational institution is influenced by the relationship "teacher - student". That is why among the requirements that are indicated in the Federal State Educational Standards, special attention is paid to establishing a friendly atmosphere in communication between teachers and children.
The structure of the educational program includes the forms of activity that the teacher will use in the work: group, individual, collective.
The work of the school staff is aimed at developing strong skills, abilities, knowledge, which contributes to the effective development of the basic standard.
The structure of the main educational program of the Federal State Educational Standard assumesthe presence of areas that consist of two levels. Namely:
- content of education provided to the student without fail;
- requirements for the level of training of graduates of a particular institution.
The structure of the educational program, in addition to the basic minimum level, implies level differentiation.
Features of the concept
What is an educational program? The structure, content, requirements for it are determined by the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. A similar program is a document that indicates and argues the purpose of pedagogical activity, educational and thematic plans, methods and ways of their implementation.
The structure of the educational program involves specifying the criteria for evaluating results in a particular educational institution. The described document is a normative text that characterizes the goals, specifics of education, curriculum, programs, pedagogical technologies and methods of practical work, planned results.
The structure of the educational program of general education contains information about the organization of an individual route for each child, passing through which he moves to a higher level of education, in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard.
This document is a set of leisure, educational, and other programs that meet the needs of the child, are aimed at his self-development, self-realization.
The structure of the educational program contains a section that highlights activities that contribute to the harmonious development of the individual, social adaptationstudents.
The program of each academic discipline included in the school curriculum is aimed at implementing the principle of personal orientation of educational activities. For this, certain conditions are created that help schoolchildren with different abilities and needs to achieve the educational minimum specified in the Federal State Educational Standard.
The structure of the educational program depends on its focus, on the age of the children.
In the institution, the content of the process of education and upbringing is divided into disciplines, courses that have separate thematic plans and programs.
The structure of the professional educational program is also compiled taking into account the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard, contains an explanatory note, goals and objectives, a thematic plan, and requirements for the level of schoolchildren's education.
The described program is a regulatory and management document, which, together with the Charter, is the basis for certification, licensing, and the introduction of additional (paid) services in accordance with the requests of parents and children.
Categories of educational programs
What characterizes the structure of the educational program of basic general education? Currently, the following categories of programs are distinguished in domestic pedagogy:
- exemplary species that are developed on the basis of GEF;
- additional and main programs of a certain level of focus.
Additional programs with different focus,implemented:
- in vocational education institutions;
- in the system of additional education;
- as part of individual educational work.
The structure of the pre-school education program must also comply with the second generation standards, which are designed specifically for the public pre-school system.
The content of the work of educational organizations is determined by teachers on the basis of exemplary programs and curricula recommended by government agencies, and author's programs approved by the methodological association or the pedagogical council of the school.
All teachers have the right to develop an author's program. Also, teachers can use exemplary educational programs of various levels and directions in their professional activities, develop new projects based on them, which take into account the individual abilities and capabilities of students, the requests of parents (legal representatives).
For example, it can be a subject curriculum, an integrated extracurricular course, an elective.
How is the main educational program of preschool education compiled? Its structure is determined by the requirements of the FGOS DOO. Currently, modified programs have become widespread, in which the main parameters of the subject are preserved, but the methods, means, forms of implementation, tasks, goals are adjusted.
Flaws of the Soviet educational system
The problem of the Sovietpreschool and school education was the mechanical memorization of certain information by children that has no practical application.
Cultural ways of activity and thinking, which were developed by past generations and consolidated in knowledge to solve practical problems, were not known to children. The teacher brought to automatism the skills that the child could use in a standard situation. No attention was paid to the development of non-standard solutions to the problem, as a result, school graduates could not adapt in society.
Today, with a personal approach, on the basis of which federal standards are created, the teacher performs the function of a mentor, developing his own educational trajectory for each child.
Attention is transferred from the results of activities to the process itself. The educational program, which is compiled taking into account the requirements of the second generation standards, contributes to the formation of cognitive motivation. Children who are involved in the educational process get the opportunity to realize their creative abilities, acquire universal learning skills, gain experience in value and emotional relationships.
We offer a fragment of the program of an additional course in chemistry (the eighth grade of the school), which meets the new state standards.
The program involves 34 hours per year (an hour per week). The number of tests - 2, practical and laboratory experiments - 5 hours.
The subject "Chemistry" is one of the basic disciplines of basic general education. The role of this subject is determined by the importance of chemical science as the basis of science education.
Additional study of this subject in the basic school is aimed at achieving the following goals:
- mastering important knowledge about the main terms and laws of chemistry, as well as chemical symbolism;
- mastering the skills of conducting chemical experiments, performing calculations using equations;
- formation of cognitive interest and improvement of intellectual abilities in the process of practical activity;
- orienting children to the practical use of skills and abilities;
- education of ideas about the materiality of the world;
- using the acquired knowledge and skills in everyday life to solve everyday problems.
The basis of the work program for the course of chemistry is the Federal component of the standard of general education, as well as a chemistry textbook (grade 8, Gabrielyan O. S.).
The course is compiled on the basis of the mandatory minimum content of chemical education for basic school (2 hours per week), as well as in accordance with the curriculum of a general education institution (2 hours per week). The content of the course takes into account the individual characteristics of students.
Practical work is not only a means of consolidating skills and abilities, but also a way for the teacher to control the quality of their formation.
The program of this course is built on a concentric concept, taking into account subjectconnection with the 7th grade physics course, which deals with the structure of the atom.
Leading ideas for this course:
- material unity of living things, their genetic relationship;
- causal relationships between the structure, composition, properties and use of substances;
- cognizability of substances and patterns of chemical processes.
Children will learn that a particular chemical compound is a link in a continuous chain of substance interactions. It participates in the cycle of elements and in chemical evolution. The teacher introduces schoolchildren to the cognizability and objectivity of the laws of nature, the ability to find environmentally friendly options for the production of products and materials.
Special attention is paid to the formation of project and research skills of eighth-graders. Considering that such activity is mandatory according to the requirements of new educational standards, as a final work after completing the course, the guys present ready-made projects (research) of a chemical, environmental, medical focus.
The main content of the elective chemistry course (grade 8) contains information about the chemical element, the forms of its existence: atoms, isotopes, ions. Separately, the program deals with simple substances, the most important s alts, oxides, acids. Students of the course will learn the features of the flow of chemical interactions, their classification.
As a result of studying the course, the student should:
- name chemical elements by symbols;
- determinesubstances according to chemical formulas;
- know the properties of the main classes of inorganic compounds;
- to have information about the signs and conditions for the implementation of chemical interactions;
- determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the compound;
- identify whether a substance belongs to a class of compounds;
- select simple, complex substances;
- define interaction types;
- use theoretical skills to solve computational problems.
The guys describe the properties of different classes according to the plan. They use the knowledge and skills acquired during the course for the safe use of materials and substances in everyday life. For example, children prepare solutions with a given concentration of a substance, solve a calculation problem for this.
New standards that have been introduced into the domestic education system contribute to the emergence and improvement of the personal qualities of children. The child, being an active participant in educational activities, acquires the ability to set certain goals and objectives, to select the possibilities for their solution. Each child in the learning process gets the opportunity to develop logical thinking, creative imagination, to form certain skills of behavior in society.
In order for a child to gain knowledge, skills and abilities, he must accumulate a certain amount of information in his memory, master actions, and be able to use them in everyday life.
The value content of skills, abilities, knowledge involves the formation of abilities and needsschoolchildren to self-determination, self-understanding, reflection. To solve this problem, educational programs use the method of gradual formation of the child's mental skills, taking into account the "leading activity", the authors of which are L. S. Vygotsky, P. Ya. Galperin. The content of educational activities and the "technological map" of the lesson are built along conditional vertical and horizontal lines.
The horizontal component assumes the successive stages of the movement of children from the initial acquaintance, adaptation in the environment, employment, reproductive actions to the development of basic knowledge and skills. At the next stages, communication skills are improved, creative and productive abilities are fixed.
The independence of each student is gradually increasing, it manifests itself in an increase and deepening of the level, a creative approach to the tasks offered by the teacher. Thanks to different types and forms of creative activity, schoolchildren gain communication skills with peers and adults.
Vertical orientation is the movement along the steps for the independent formation of the mental abilities of the child with the mandatory development and interactive presentation of the educational program.
Such a movement in time, a return to the old material, accompanied by a gradual complication of the content, fully complies with the requirements of the new generation of the Federal State Educational Standard.
Among the urgent problems existing in domestic education, a special place is occupied by the activity of students. Many modern children do not showinterest in acquiring new skills, knowledge and skills. In order to develop initiative and curiosity in the younger generation, the content of educational programs includes the method of intensive and active learning.
It allows children to build self-confidence, develop communication skills, gain valuable experience. The emphasis in such training is on designing learning situations, for the solution of which the students independently develop an algorithm of actions, choose the best methods for solving the tasks set by the teacher.
The teacher acts as a mentor, correcting (if necessary) the activities of his pupils. General education programs within the framework of the new standards are focused on the personal development of each child. This contributes to the education within the walls of institutions of students with an active civic position, able to take responsibility for their actions.