Classification of Hippocrates: types and description, detailed characteristics

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Classification of Hippocrates: types and description, detailed characteristics
Classification of Hippocrates: types and description, detailed characteristics

What about the classification of Hippocrates? In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and relatively independent of learning, value systems, and attitudes. Some researchers point to the relationship of temperament with formal dynamic features of behavior, such as energy aspects, plasticity, sensitivity to specific reinforcers and emotionality.

Character traits (such as neuroticism, sociability, impulsiveness, and others) Remain characteristic behavioral traits throughout adulthood, but they are most visible and best studied in children. Babies are usually characterized by temperament. But longitudinal studies in the 1920s began to establish temperament as something stable throughout life.


Although a broad definition of temperament has been agreed upon, many temperament classification schemes have been developed, but there is still no consensus on them.

Historically, the concept of "temperament" (originally "temperament" in Latin means "mixtures"). It was part of the theory of four humors with their respective temperaments.

This historical concept has been explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psychophysiologists since the earliest times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans and others. Their ideas were a development of the Hippocratic classification.

Statues of temperaments

More recently, scientists seeking evidence for the biological basis of personality have further explored the relationship between temperament and neurotransmitter systems and character (defined in this context as aspects of personality development). However, biological correlations have proven difficult to confirm.


Temperament is defined through specific behavioral profiles, usually with an emphasis on those that are easily measurable and testable in early childhood. Commonly tested factors include traits associated with energetic abilities (called "Activity", "Stamina", "Extraversion"), traits associated with emotionality (such as irritability, frequency of smiles), and approach or avoidance of unfamiliar events.

Typically, there is a low correlation between teacher descriptions and behavioral observationsscientists features used in determining temperament. It is assumed that temperament is associated with biological factors, but they turned out to be complex and diverse, and did not clarify the classification of Hippocrates.


Historically, in the second century AD, the physician Galen described four temperaments (melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine and choleric) based on four humors or bodily fluids. These have come to be known as the four classical temperaments. In more recent history, Rudolf Steiner emphasized the importance of the four classical temperaments in elementary education, at a time when he believed that the influence of temperament on personality is strongest.

Neither Galen nor Steiner are generally applied to the modern study of temperament in the approaches of modern medicine or modern psychology.

King and temperaments

Temperaments in American psychology

Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have focused empirical research on a temperamental category called "reactivity." Children at four months of age who became "excited and anxious" when presented with new stimuli were called highly reactive. Those who remained "motorically relaxed, not crying, and not worrying about the same set of unfamiliar events" were called low-reactive.

These high and low reactivity children were tested again at 14 and 21 months "in a variety of unfamiliar laboratory situations". Children with high reactivity were predominantly characterized by strongfear of unfamiliar events, which Kagan called repressed. On the contrary, children with low reactivity were minimally fearful to new situations and were characterized by a free profile (Kagan).

However, at follow-up at age 4.5, only a small proportion of children maintained their expected profile due to factors such as family experience. Those who remained severely depressed or unimpaired after 4.5 years had a higher risk of developing anxiety and behavioral disorders, respectively.

Additional classifications

Kagan also used two additional classifications: one for babies who were inactive but cried a lot (distressed) and one for those who were active but cried little (excited). Between the ages of 14 and 17, these groups of children had different outcomes, including some differences in central nervous system activity. Adolescents who were classified as highly active when they were infants are more likely to be depressed in unfamiliar situations, have stern moods and anxiety in the future, and be more religious.

Classification of Hippocratic temperaments

A Greek doctor made a discovery centuries ago, but it is still not completely refuted by scientists. The Four Temperaments Theory is a protopsychological theory that suggests that there are four basic personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic. Most formulations include the possibility of combining types, inwhose personality types overlap and have two or more temperaments.

The Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 460 - 370 BC) described the four temperaments as part of the ancient medical concept of humor, that the four bodily fluids affect a person's personality traits and behavior. Modern medical science does not define a fixed relationship between inner secrets and personality, although some psychological systems of personality types use categories similar to Greek temperaments.

Most people tend to have aspects of their personality that are identified with each of the four temperaments. However, there are usually two main temperaments that are displayed at a much higher level. A person can be any combination of the following four types.

Reflections and temperaments

Type descriptions

The sanguine personality type is described primarily as very talkative, energetic, active and outgoing. Sanguine people tend to be more extroverted and like to be part of a crowd; they find it easy to be social, outgoing, and charismatic. People with this personality find it difficult to do nothing and are more risk-averse, according to the Hippocratic classification.

Choleric people are usually more extroverted. They are described as independent, determined and driven, and enjoy leading a group as they have many leadership qualities and ambitions. Choleric individuals also have a logical and factual view of the world, although this is not always the case.provided by Hippocratic classification types.

Melancholics tend to be analytical and detail oriented, and they are deep thinkers and sensitive. They are closed and try not to stand out from the crowd. A melancholy personality leads to independence, thoughtfulness, isolation and often anxiety. They often strive for perfection within themselves and their environment, resulting in neat and detailed behavior. This is the most vulnerable of the Hippocratic temperament types.

Phlegmatic people are usually calm, peaceful, somewhat mundane. They empathize and care for others, but try to hide their emotions. Phlegmatic people also know how to generalize ideas and problems in the world and make compromises. The calmest of the four types of temperament in the classification of Hippocrates.

Temperament emoticons


The word comes via French from Italian sanguigna and originally from Latin "sanguis" (red chalk). Each of the 4 types of Hippocratic classification is named after some substance, so do not be surprised by such a strange etymology.

The pigment used in sanguine sticks comes from red earth, such as red ocher. Sanguine (red chalk) can also exist in several other colors such as orange, brown, brown, beige.


People of this type are often leaders and masters of fate. They strive to be in control, to be on top, to be the best.

This does not necessarily mean that allthey strive to reach the top of the corporate ladder or whatever, or that they all want to have leadership roles, but in everyday interaction with other people, they tend to one thing - monogamy.

Melancholic Rescue

They use imperative, command language, formulating things as orders, not requests. Compare "bring me a drink" to "can I have a drink?". They probably use phrases like "deal with it", "cut yourself off", "stop being such a wimp", etc. Or they might start sentences with "look" or maybe "watch buddy" or "listen, buddy" or things like that.

They say things with confidence and confidence. Compare "X is like this" to "Maybe X is like this or something?"

They are firm and determined in their approach to problems. They believe in "tough love" and try to "help" others by encouraging them to express themselves as they are.

They are more likely to tell someone they are trying to "help" that they are pathetic, expecting that person to say "no, I'm not pathetic, I'll show you!" an answer to such a thing.


Melancholy (from Greek: µέλαινα χολή melaina chole "gall bladders", also Latin lugere greed for grief, Latin morosus sullenness of self-will or fastidious habit, and Old English wistfulness of intention or saturnine) from ancient to modern medicine. Melancholy was one of the four temperaments corresponding to the four humors. In the 19th century, "melancholy" could bephysical, mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause and not by their properties.

The defining feature of a melancholic attitude is perfectionism. They are idealists who want things to be a certain way, and they get upset when they don't.

They hold themselves and others to unrealistically high standards and become upset when those standards are not met. This leads them to be self-deprecating - because they don't live up to their own standards - and criticize others - because those others don't live up to their standards.

Their overall harsh behavior comes from their internal struggle between an imperfect world and the pursuit of perfection.

Many melancholy people want to learn and understand, to know the details of every little thing, because to be ignorant is to deviate from perfection. They don't want to just accept things as they are. They are inquisitive and ask specific questions in order to come to a clearer understanding.

This leads many of them to excessive, neurotic disorders.

They are very stubborn because they try very hard to adhere to their carefully considered views and standards of excellence, and it is not easy for them to go astray. They don't go with the flow.

Alternative Temperament Emoticons


The last type of external nervous activity (GNA) and Hippocrates, and Pavlov, and a number of other scientists call phlegmatic. He is introverted and enjoys time alone. However,they are much "nice" and more friendly and social than melancholics, as they are not burdened with "perfectionism" and therefore do not judge others.

They enjoy spending time with their friends and are very loyal to those friends, sticking to them no matter what. This is because they put others first and will not leave others even if THEY want to because the other person may not want them to leave.

They are almost immune to anger. They have extremely long fuses and can only break after a period of prolonged and constant abuse. Even so, they are more likely to retreat into themselves and cry than to try to hurt another.

They love a calm and measured life, free from surprises. They can be relatively confident in familiar situations - if not necessarily assertive - but panic when placed in new ones. They are not thrill seekers and enjoy a predictable, calm, ritualistic lifestyle.

They are really very calm and don't readily share their inner thoughts as they are afraid of being judged and don't want to disturb others.

Alchemical temperaments

They are, however, excellent and attentive listeners who will take their friends' conversations calmly and politely. They will always pay attention and support rather than criticize or give advice. They would never say something like "bored now" as if it was the duty of others to entertain them.

Because they hate to offend or hurtothers, they usually never resort to aggressive insults or attacks. This is the classification of GNI types according to Pavlov and Hippocrates.

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