In the 20th century - and now in the 21st - the humanitarian field of knowledge increasingly places a person - his characteristics, behavior, character - at the center of scientific research. In linguistics, the same thing is observed: we are interested in language not as an abstract phenomenon, but as a manifestation of human nature, development, and achievements. In science, there is still no single concept and definition of what a "linguistic personality" is. Nevertheless, along with the "linguistic picture of the world" - a related concept - this phenomenon occupies scientists at all levels of language learning - from phonetics to textology.
In a very generalized formulation, we can say that a linguistic personality is a combination of linguistic behavior and self-expression of a person. The formation of the discourse of an individual is influenced primarily by his native language.
And here we should recall those linguistic hypotheses (for example, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), according to which it is language that determines thinking. For example, for Russian-speaking people, the concepts of definite and indefinite articles are difficult, which are simply perceivednative speakers of Germanic languages (English, Danish, German). And in comparison with Polish, in Russian there is no “feminine-thing category”. That is, where the Pole distinguishes (say, with the help of pronouns or the form of the verb), whether it is a question of a group in which there were only women, children or animals, otherwise, a group in which at least one man was present, for a Russian there are no fundamental differences. What does it affect? On mistakes in the languages being studied, which are not the result of poor learning, but of a different linguistic consciousness, a different linguistic personality.
Even speaking our own language, we communicate differently, say, among peers, with teachers, on forums. That is, depending on the sphere of communication, we use different qualities of our individuality - what our linguistic personality is, choosing vocabulary, sentence structure, style. Its formation is influenced not only by the native language as such, but also by the environment of upbringing, and the level of education, and the field of specialization.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that the linguistic personality of a doctor, for example, will differ from the linguistic personality of a programmer or an agricultural worker. Doctors will use medical terminology more often even in ordinary speech, their associations and comparisons will be more often associated with the human body. Whereas in the speech of engineers, metaphors associated with mechanisms and machines are more often observed. Thus, the structure of a linguistic personality depends on many factors. The environment in which we were brought up creates the foundation, however,just like our character and personality traits, this structure is in constant development and is influenced by the environment in which we live. Pay attention to how getting into another family - say, getting married - the girl begins to speak a little differently, using sayings or "sayings" adopted in her husband's family. The situation is even more interesting if the linguistic personality continues to develop in a foreign language environment. So, the speech of emigrants is distinguished by a number of features, it is imprinted by the language in which they have to communicate daily.
In the theory and practice of linguistics, the linguistic personality of the translator occupies a special place. The fact is that a translator is not only a bearer of a certain culture, but also a mediator - an intermediary - a transmitter of the phenomena of one culture to another. Its task is not only to convey information, but also, often, to recreate the same force of emotional impact on the reader, to convey the same range of feelings and associations that the original language evokes. And it turns out that an absolutely “objective” translation is impossible in practice, because in everything – starting from those places that remained misunderstood or misunderstood, and ending with the choice of phraseology and metaphors – the language personality of the translation author is reflected. This can be especially clearly seen in the example of translations of the same poem by different translators. Even within the same time period (for example, the translations of Petrarch, which were performed by the poets of the Silver Age), the style, figurativethe system and, ultimately, the overall impact of the same poem in different translations will be fundamentally different.