Training, education, upbringing are the key pedagogical categories that give an idea of the essence of science. At the same time, the terms denote social phenomena that are integral to human life.
Considering the term in relation to a social phenomenon, it is necessary to regard it as the transfer of information and experience from older to younger. The upbringing and education of children should have specific goals, and the transmission of information is optimal within the framework of some well-developed system, due to which the coverage will be complete and deep. One of the features of education is the organization of the process of interaction between the source of information and the individual receiving it. The younger generation should as fully as possible assimilate information, experience, features of relationships within society, as well as the results of the progress of social consciousness. As part of education, children get acquainted with the essence of productive labor and learn about the world in which they exist, understand why it is necessary to protect it, how it can be transformed. Transferring this data in such a way that the younger generation can master it and expand it in the future is the mainlearning idea.
Upbringing, development, training, education are tools for transferring information between generations. Thanks to training, the work of society as a single and harmonious organism, gradually progressing, developing, full-fledged, is possible. Education provides for each individual individual a high level of development, which makes learning objectively important, meaningful, meaningful for society and the individual.
Nuances of learning
Considering upbringing, training, education, it should be noted that the mechanism by which information is transmitted is the joint work of the older and younger generations, that is, data carriers and those to whom they should be transferred. In order for the work to be effective, it is organized following generally accepted rules and forms. This allows you to make communication informative and useful, meaningful.
The upbringing and education of a person directly depend on the historical period of existence and the characteristics of specific conditions. In different civilizations, eras, the organization of training is unique and individual. This affects both the choice of data transmitted from one generation to another and the indoctrination, as well as the mind of the trainee.
Pedagogy as a science understands learning as having a goal and organization, a controlled process of mutual work of the student and the teacher. Education in the education system, training are implemented so that children learn new information, master skills, gain new opportunities, and also consolidatethe ability to independently seek and understand new information.
How does it work?
Upbringing, education is not an easy science. Training involves the transfer of skills and knowledge, skills. For a teacher, these are basic content components, and for a student, a product that needs to be learned. Within the framework of such interaction, knowledge is transferred first of all. Under the term it is customary to understand all the information that the student has mastered and assimilated, all the concepts and ideas that he received, and therefore his picture of reality.
Skills acquired as part of the education and upbringing of a personality involve automated actions related to intellectual activity, movements and sensors. A person, having completed a training course, quickly and easily performs them, minimally loading consciousness. Mastering skills allows you to make a person's activity effective.
Another goal of education, upbringing, training is the transfer of skills. This term is commonly understood as the ability of an individual to use the information received, skills in practice, creatively applying them in order to achieve their goals. The relevance of skills is especially high if we remember that the practical activity of an individual is constantly changing, conditions do not remain stable for any long period of time.
Goals and objectives: primary and secondary
Currently practiced education in the education system involves the transfer of some useful information to students,which will be useful to them in the future. At the same time, the teaching staff, as if as a secondary function, forms the worldview of students, ideology and morality, as well as many other attitudes that determine the life path of a person. From the outside it seems that this is formed only incidentally, by chance, but in practice the work is carried out, albeit implicitly, but in detail - it is for this reason that training is to some extent education. The reverse is also true: upbringing to some extent is training. Training and education are two concepts that overlap, although the overlap is not absolute.
The most effective way to understand the content of upbringing and education is to evaluate the functions of these processes. The most basic is the creation of individual skills, abilities, knowledge. Obtaining new qualities, a person simultaneously consolidates those that are important for everyday life. At the same time, work is underway on the worldview of the individual. Its development is rather slow, due to the ability of the intellect to generalize the knowledge gained over the years - they become the basis for reasoning about the world around the person.
Growth and development
Education, development, upbringing allow a person to gradually realize himself as a person and grow in this regard, as well as learn to think independently. The development of an individual involves the improvement of various characteristics: the psyche, the body, but in the first place - the intellect. Assessing the development of various features, quantitative and qualitative scales are used.
As part of the upbringing and education program, a person receivesprofessional orientation. This function of learning is extremely important, as it allows you to master the skills of work, to obtain specific skills and knowledge that can be applied in practice. The person understands which areas are most interesting to her.
From childhood, external factors prepare a person for the fact that education is a continuous process, dragging on for life. This orients the individual to actively participate in social life and production, prepares for practical activities and makes it possible to realize the importance of improving oneself in various aspects and areas. At the same time, it is taken into account that education and spiritual upbringing have the function of creativity, that is, they help to orient a person towards constant, non-stop improvement of their own qualities from different sides, in various aspects.
Why is this so important?
Culture, upbringing, education are social phenomena, social and historical. They are characterized by high inconsistency and complexity. Within the framework of this social phenomenon, the younger generation is included in social activity and the domestic sphere, in production and relationships that are characteristic of people. Through education, the continuity of generations is realized. Without it, the progress of society is impossible.
Social education, social education are closely related to other phenomena inherent in society. The need of our society is the preparation of new resources for productivity; without this, the functioning of society and its development is simply impossible. Meaningful upbringing asa social phenomenon is the development of labor skills, production experience. The level of perfection of the productive forces is closely related to the nature of education. It affects both the content aspects, and the methods and forms of education, the content of the process. Currently, humanistic pedagogy is relevant, for which the goal is a person, his full-fledged harmonious development, based on individual talents bestowed by nature, as well as the requirements of society at the moment.
Don't forget about cultural aspects
Education and upbringing is not only the transfer of skills useful for work, as well as professional orientation, but also cultural development, linguistic excellence. In many ways, it is through them that the process of learning, the transfer of experience from the elders to the younger ones, is realized. Through language, people can conduct activities together, and therefore successfully satisfy their needs.
For education, different forms of social self-consciousness, morality and ethics, religious movements and scientific activity, creativity and law are important. Public consciousness is the conditions in which the education of young people is realized. At the same time, for politics, education is a way through which one can establish oneself in society in order to be recognized by new generations. Morality, moral principles affect a person almost from birth. They are the first aspects of education that a child gets acquainted with. At the time of birth, a person finds himself in a society that has a certain system of morality, and you will have to adapt to it as you grow up. Exactlythrough education such adaptation becomes possible.
The relevance of law in the framework of education and upbringing is connected with the need to convey to the children's consciousness the importance of observing the norms established in society, as well as the inadmissibility of breaking the law. Moral behavior is subject to the law, immoral behavior violates it.
Education and its aspects
In many ways, science helps to realize education and upbringing. Through it, orientation to the knowledge of the world through verified and reliable information takes place. Science is a necessary basis for starting life in society, for obtaining an education in a speci alty.
Through art, a child can form an artistic picture of the world around him. This gives rise to an aesthetic attitude to existence, progress, helps the personality to form fully in various aspects: spiritual, civil, moral.
Education and upbringing are realized through religion. This approach is relevant when it is necessary to explain some phenomena without using scientific arguments. Most of the currently known religions speak of the afterlife and explain in what ways and in what capacity certain persons get there. Religion is important in upbringing because it helps create a human worldview.
Pedagogy and education
Within the framework of pedagogy, education, upbringing (physical and spiritual) are terms used in a narrower sense than those described above. Yes, they call education.activities aimed at shaping students' certain views on the world and social life. Education is based on a scientific worldview and accepted ideals, standards, as well as the idea of he althy relationships between members of society. Education in the understanding of pedagogy is a process during which moral attitudes, political, physical qualities are formed, as well as features of psychology, behavioral reactions and habits, due to which an individual can fit into society and be an active participant in it.
At the same time, for pedagogy, upbringing, education (physical, spiritual, moral) implies the result of some work. First, specific tasks are formed, after some time, it is assessed how successfully they were achieved.
For pedagogy, not only education is important, but also self-education. This term denotes the activity of a person aimed at creating positive features in himself and eliminating negative ones. As is known from centuries of observation of society, self-education is a prerequisite for the development of the individual, its improvement.
Self-education. How about a closer look?
The most significant meaningful components of independent conscious upbringing are tasks, goals defined by an individual as an ideal. It is on them that the improvement program is based, which a person consistently implements (or takes attempts to do so). Within the framework of self-education, requirements are formed, comprehended and explained - it is they that must be metpersonality and activity. Self-education affects politics, ideology, profession, psychology and pedagogy, ethics and other aspects of human life.
Self-education is most effective when a person consciously uses the methods of this work in relation to himself, when he has the ability to put them into practice in different life circumstances and conditions. For self-education, it is important to have internal attitudes, self-awareness, as well as the ability to correctly and adequately assess one's own behavior and development in various areas and spheres. To some extent, self-education is a strengthening of the will, control over emotions, which is especially important in an extreme situation or difficult and atypical conditions.
Parenting, training and education
The concepts under consideration can be assessed by analyzing the cognitive powers inherent in an individual, preparing a person for the tasks that he has to solve. Pre-school upbringing and education, school and at an older age, as a rule, is a complex concept, which includes a search with the subsequent assimilation of useful information and skills, as well as the result of this development.
Education is a relative result of learning, expressed by the emerging system of skills, data, attitudes towards society and nature for a person. School, preschool education and upbringing and improvement at an older age involves changing, improving the existing information system of ideas, as well as the relationship of the object to the world around it. This change is explainednew living conditions, the progress of science and technology.
Education is both the knowledge accumulated by an individual and its psychological readiness to receive and collect new information, process it, and also improve their own ideas. The process of education allows you to get more accurate ideas about society and the surrounding nature, the ability to think and different methods of acting. This helps to take a certain position in the social structure, achieve your goals in your chosen profession and communicate with other members of society.
Education is important
Basic and additional education and upbringing are methods of obtaining skills, a way of developing intelligence, learning new things in practice. As a result, a person receives many tools to achieve their goals and solve problems that may appear in life - personal or professional.
Education is associated with the accumulation of skills of will, control of emotions, and also helps to develop an attitude towards the world around. In the process of education, a person develops the psyche, learns to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the outside world, improves his own inner world, and also gains creative experience, which in the future will come in handy when it is necessary to solve various problems.
Processes and Outcomes
The main result that pursues the process of education is the full and comprehensive development, the formation of the human personality,which is characterized by stable knowledge and skills. Such a person can combine intellectual employment and physical labor, produce benefits that are significant for society, and harmoniously develop spiritually and physically. The process of education forms an active participant in society, which is characterized by moral ideals, taste, versatile needs.
Humanity has accumulated huge knowledge bases, which means that it is impossible to talk about the possibility of full mastery of them by one person, even if a whole life is spent on learning. Education makes it possible to master some limited, systematized amount of information relevant to the field in which the individual operates. The data obtained should be sufficient for independent development, thinking, professional activity.
Education presupposes systematic knowledge and the same thinking, that is, a person must, on his own, search for and restore the lack of information in the database he has, so that logical reasoning is correct and relevant.
History and Education: Ancient Era
Speaking of antiquity, they usually mean the culture of ancient Rome and Greece. Egyptian culture became the basis for it, and antiquity itself laid the foundation for the development of European states. The origins of this culture are the first and second millennia before the onset of the current era. It was then that a distinctive culture was formed on some islands in the Aegean Sea, and Crete is considered especially significant. It was here that writing was born, which gradually transformed from pictography to syllables and was adopted in the future.European countries. At that time, noble people, we althy citizens could write. Schools were opened for them at temple complexes, palaces. Certain rules invented during that period are still relevant today: using capital letters and writing from left to right, from top to bottom. However, the culture itself has not survived to this day.
Education originated and developed in ancient Greece, which is also considered the cradle of pedagogy. This is largely due to the history of policies, that is, city-states that existed in the sixth - fourth centuries of the past era. The most significant are Sparta and Athens. They had their own unique educational systems related to the economy, geography, politics of the area, as well as the general condition of settlements. It was in ancient Greece that people first realized that one of the most significant state functions is the care and education of young people.
How was it in the old days?
Both among the Spartans and among the Athenians, education was the most important quality of a citizen. Wanting to offend someone, they said about him that he was not able to read. One of the worst evils was considered the deprivation of the right, the opportunity to get an education. The upbringing of the Spartans was aimed primarily at the formation of a worthy member of the community, capable of fighting. The ideal person was a young man with a strong mind and body, who had an idea of \u200b\u200bmilitary affairs. The educational system was under state control. A he althy child was given up for upbringing in a family until the age of 7, while the breadwinner was an important part of his life.
As you reach the age of seven, the state took over the issues of education. Until the age of 15, children were sent to special institutions, where control over the process was given to a responsible person. All those accepted were taught to read, write, developed physical form, tempered. Children were taught to starve, to endure pain and thirst, to submit, to speak little and strictly to the point. Eloquence was strictly suppressed. The pupils did not wear shoes, they were given a straw bedding for sleeping, and a thin raincoat replaced their outer clothing. Meager food was supposed, children were taught to steal, but those who came across were severely punished for the failure of the event.
As they reached the age of 14, young people were ordained as members of the community. Upbringing assumed the acquisition of civil rights from this age. The initiation was accompanied by tortures, humiliating trials, during which no crying or groaning was allowed. Pupils who successfully passed the tortures further received education in accordance with the state program. They were taught music, singing and dancing. Education was practiced by the most severe methods. The young men were given a clear idea of the politics and morality acceptable in their native polis. Responsibility for this was assigned to the wise military, who told the audience about the heroic deeds that happened in the past.
By the age of 20, novices were fully armed and began to improve their combat abilities.
History of upbringing: how they grew upgirls in Sparta?
In many ways, working with the female sex was similar to the improvement of boys described above. Some attention was paid to the general education program, but the main attention was paid to physical development and military abilities. The main task of a citizen of Sparta is to protect housing and control slaves while her husband is at war or is involved in subduing an uprising.
What happened in Athens?
In this policy, education and upbringing went a different way. Athens became the center of handicrafts, trade, architectural monuments were erected here, performances were staged, competitions were held. Athens attracted poets, philosophers - all conditions were created for speaking to an audience. There were gyms. The school system was developed. The society in which education developed was heterogeneous, focused on different segments of the population. The main goal of education was the formation of a full-fledged personality. Attention was paid to the physical form and intelligence, the perception of beauty and morality.
Until the age of seven, children were brought up in a family. After this age, parents with sufficient we alth sent their child to a public institution. Girls usually stayed at home - they were taught how to manage the household. According to tradition, in Athens, girls were supposed to have only such an upbringing, but it included writing and reading, music.
Until the age of 14, boys received primary education. They went to school accompanied by a slave teacher, and in the classroom they got an idea ofreading, writing, arithmetic. Visiting the cytharist, they got an idea about literature and aesthetics. Children were taught to recite, sing, taught music. Particular attention was paid to the poems "Iliad" and "Odyssey". As a rule, the children went to both the cytharist school and the grammarian. This was called the music school system.