Where Genghis Khan is buried: legends and hypotheses. Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan

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Where Genghis Khan is buried: legends and hypotheses. Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan
Where Genghis Khan is buried: legends and hypotheses. Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan
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The place of the last refuge of the legendary Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan for several centuries has been the object of endless searches and disputes between archaeologists, historians and ordinary researchers from all over the world. While specialists from Mongolia, relying on their sources, suggest that the grave of the great khan is hidden in a mountainous area north of the city of Ulaanbaatar, their Chinese colleagues are convinced that the grave is located in a completely different place. The death and funeral of the Mongol commander are increasingly overgrown with myths and fables. The mystery of where Genghis Khan is buried and what was behind his death remains unresolved.

Personality of Genghis Khan

Chronicles and annals, which contain any data about the life and formation of the great khan, were mainly written after his death. And there was not much reliable information in them. Information about where Genghis Khan was born, his character and appearance is often contradictory. As it turned out, several Asian peoples claim kinship with him at once. The researchers state that everything in the history of the khan is doubtful, and additionalarchaeological data and sources.

Obviously, the Mongol Khan came from a society where there was no written language and no developed state institutions. Nevertheless, the lack of a book education was compensated by excellent organizational skills, unbending will and enviable self-control. He was known to his close associates as a generous and quite friendly person. Possessing all the blessings of life, Genghis Khan shunned excesses and excessive luxury, which he considered incompatible with his rule. He lived to a ripe old age, with his mental faculties in full strength and sobriety.

the secret of Genghis Khan's grave

End of the road

The mystery associated with the great conqueror is not limited to the question of his lost tomb, the mysteries begin even before his burial. Until now, historians have not come to a consensus under what circumstances and how Genghis Khan died. The records of the famous Portuguese Marco Polo say that, according to ancient oriental manuscripts, the Mongol khan was wounded during the siege of the capital of the Tangut kingdom in 1227. The opponent's arrow hit the knee and caused blood poisoning, leading to death.

According to another version related to Chinese sources, Genghis Khan's death was due to poisoning, accompanied by a prolonged fever. The ailment began during the siege of Zhongxin: the contaminated air was heavily saturated with the fumes of decaying corpses, city sewage and garbage.

The most exotic version of how he diedGenghis Khan, became a narrative in the medieval Tatar chronicles. According to this version, the khan was killed by a Tangut queen, who was either the daughter or wife of the ruler of the Tangut kingdom. Once in the harem of the commander, the proud beauty during the wedding night decides to avenge the plundered homeland and gnaws the throat of the perfidious invader with her teeth. But this hypothesis has no confirmation in other chronicles, so it does not inspire much confidence.

great commander

Secret funeral

Excerpts from various sources helped to add up the overall picture of the funeral of Genghis Khan. According to the legends, the funeral procession with the body of the ruler secretly left the bend of the Yellow River and went to Karakorum, where the Mongol nobility and heads of clans gathered. During the journey, the khan's close associates mercilessly exterminated those who could somehow be aware of his death. Upon arrival in their native lands, the remains were dressed in ceremonial clothes and, having been placed in a coffin, they were taken to the Burkhan-Khaldun hill. In order to avoid disturbing the peace of Genghis Khan, all the slaves and warriors who performed the funeral work were killed. No one was supposed to know the place of burial.

Many years later, bushes and trees reliably hid the slopes of the Khentei highlands, and it became impossible to determine which of the mountains was called Burkhan-Khaldun. At the same time, most versions about the location of the grave somehow lead to the Hentei mountain range.

in the footsteps of Genghis Khan

Search for the grave

For centuries, historians and treasure hunters have been trying to find the place where Genghis Khan is buried, but this mysteryremains still undiscovered. In 1923-1926, the expedition of the geographer P.K. Kozlov, traveling through Altai, came across an interesting find. In the Khangai mountains, at the foot of Khan-Kokshun, the ruins of a Chinese town were discovered, which, judging by the inscription left on the slab, was built in 1275 by the troops of Khubilai (grandson of Genghis Khan). A tomb was hidden among the large stones, where 13 generations of the descendants of the Mongol Khan were buried, but he himself was not there.

In 1989, the Mongolian ethnographer Sir-Ojav conducted a deep study of the historiographical monument "The Secret History of the Mongols". As a result of the work done, he suggested that the ashes of the great khan rest in "Ikh Gazar" (from the Mongolian "cemetery of the great"), located in the region of the Burkhan-Khaldun hill. Based on many years of work, the professor named two places where the remains of Genghis Khan could be buried: the southern side of Mount Khan-Khentei and the foot of Mount Nogoon-nuruu. The expedition of the German archaeologist Schubert, based on these data, explored the Khan-Khentei ranges, but found nothing there.

The search for the grave continues, researchers and historians, despite a string of misses, do not think to give up. To this day, various versions of the burial of Genghis Khan are being developed, and some of them are quite worthy of attention.

Onon river

Legends of Transbaikalia

In Russia, a widespread hypothesis about the location of the grave of Genghis Khan, where his ashes truly lie, is the Onon one. It should be noted that the region of Transbaikalia is very rich in legends aboutMongol ruler, and in many of them there are popular stories that his remains rest at the bottom of the Onon River, near the village of Kubuhai. There is an opinion that during the burial the river was diverted to the side, and then returned to its original course. In legends, the burial of the khan is often associated with incalculable we alth, and, according to some versions, he is buried in no other way than in a golden boat.

Zhigzhitzhab Dorzhiev, a respected Aginsk historian, speaks of the existence of a legend that has survived to this day. It is also worth paying attention to. It says that Genghis Khan himself determined the place of his burial - the tract Delyun-Boldok, where he was born.

legends of Genghis Khan

Tomb at the bottom of the Selenga River

Another legend says that the tomb of Genghis Khan was placed at the bottom of the Selenga River. The emperor's inner circle drove many slaves into the river valley in order to build a dam and change the course of the water. The coffin with the ashes was placed in a niche hollowed out on the drained bottom of the reservoir. At night, the dam was deliberately destroyed, and everyone who was in the valley (slaves, masons, warriors) died. Those who managed to survive fell victim to the sword of the sent detachment, which, in turn, was also destroyed. As a result, there was no one left who could tell where Genghis Khan was buried.

To keep the secret of the location of the grave along the banks of the Selenga, herds of horses were repeatedly driven away. Then the burial rites of the commander were defiantly carried out in several different places, completely confusing all traces.

in search of the khan's tomb

Nakhodka near Binder

In the fall of 2001, American archaeologist Maury Kravitz with Professor John Woods of the University of Chicago, 360 kilometers from the city of Ulaanbaatar, in Khentii aimag (near Mount Binder), discovered graves protected by high stone walls. With the help of technology, it was found that the remains of more than 60 people were buried in the burial, and, judging by the value of the armor, these warriors belonged to the Mongolian nobility. American researchers informed the world community that the found tomb may be the very shelter where Genghis Khan was buried. However, a month later, information was received that refutes this statement.

A new burial site with the buried remains of hundreds of soldiers was found 50 kilometers from the ongoing excavations. But a detailed study of the grave could not be done. The ensuing drought and the invasion of the silkworm were regarded by the Mongols as a punishment for disturbing the peace of the leaders. The expedition had to be curtailed.

Mongolian-Japanese expedition

Ruins in the area of ​​Avraga

In 2001, a Mongolian-Japanese group of archaeologists, following chronicles, began exploring the area of ​​Avraga, located in the Eastern Aimag of Mongolia. Excavations unearthed the remains of an ancient settlement that stretches from west to east for more than 1500 meters, and from north to south - for 500 meters. Three years later, archaeologists stumbled upon the foundation of the building, dated to the 13th-15th centuries. The imposing building had the shape of a square with sides25 by 25 meters. Separate fragments of walls 1.5 meters thick with holes for load-bearing supports have been preserved in it.

In addition to valuable things, during the excavations were found: a stone altar, vessels for incense, incense burners. The image of a dragon on the latter was a symbol of supreme power. Ash, the remains of domestic animals and the ashes of silk fabrics were found in deep pits discovered nearby. New finds have given reason to believe that the ancient building may well be the memorial mausoleum of Genghis Khan. Japanese researcher Noriyuki Shiraishi believes that, based on these data, the tomb of Genghis Khan is located within a radius of 12 kilometers from the ongoing work, given the distance between the tombs and mausoleums of that time.

search for a burial site

Chinese claims

Chinese are among the active researchers trying to find the place where Genghis Khan is buried. They believe that the legendary emperor is buried in the territory of modern China. Lubsan Danzana has published a book on this topic. In it, he stated that all places claiming to be the true burial place of the khan, whether it be Burkhan-Khaldun, the northern slope of Altai-khan, the southern slope of Kentei-khan or the area of ​​Yehe-Utek, belong to the territory of the People's Republic of China.

It is interesting to note that the Japanese, who do not believe that the burial is located on their territory, claim that the khan was a true Japanese samurai. Once he went to the mainland, where he achieved fame as a master of military affairs.

Treasure of the grave of Genghis Khan

Raising the topic oftreasures of the tomb of Genghis Khan, some researchers voice figures of 500 tons of gold and 3 thousand tons of silver bullion. But it is not yet possible to establish the exact value of the alleged treasure. The history of Mongolia claims that after the funeral of the old khan, the empire was headed by his eldest son Ogedei, while the treasury disappeared and no one inherited his father's inheritance. This is also mentioned in chronicles collected in China.

According to a well-known legend, Genghis Khan, anticipating his death before the very last campaign against the Tanguts, gave the order to melt the existing jewelry into ingots and safely hide them in seven wells. All involved people were then executed in order to avoid leakage of information. According to paleoethnographer V.N. Degtyarev, three out of seven possible wells with the treasures of the Khan are located on the territory of Russia.

statue of genghis khan in mongolia

Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan

In Mongolia, Genghis Khan was only freely spoken of after the fall of the communist regime. The international airport in Ulaanbaatar was named in his honor, universities were formed, hotels and squares were built and renamed. Now the emperor's portrait can be found on household goods, packaging material, badges, stamps and banknotes.

The equestrian statue of Genghis Khan in Mongolia was erected in 2008 on the banks of the Tuul River, in the area of ​​Tsongzhin-Boldog. According to legend, it was at this place that the khan found a golden whip. At the base of the giant sculpture are 36 columns, which symbolize the ruling Mongol khans. The whole composition is covered with stainlesssteel, its height is 40 meters, excluding the base with columns.

Inside the ten-meter base there is a restaurant, souvenir shops, an art gallery and a museum with an impressive map of the great commander's conquests. From the exhibition hall, visitors are given the opportunity to take the elevator to the "head" of the statue's horse, where guests can enjoy a magnificent view of the surrounding area on the observation deck.

Conclusion

For a long time the name of Genghis Khan was synonymous with a merciless and cruel conqueror who "washed with blood" and wiped many peoples off the face of the earth. However, a number of recent scientific works and studies dedicated to the founder of a mighty empire have prompted people to reconsider his role in world history.

Mongolia is fraught with many mysteries and mysteries, which cannot be answered due to the small number of preserved archaeological sites. They continue to collect bit by bit. For researchers, in addition to the death and burial of Genghis Khan, the fact of the fleeting decline of Mongolian society after the collapse of the empire is still inexplicable. The absence of archaeological material from the 13th century on Mongolian soil forced scientists to characterize this period as the “age of silence.”

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