Purely literary institutions in our country are in the amount of one and only. As, however, and throughout the globe. There are many pedagogical institutes where Russian language and literature are taught in the process of preparing school teachers. There are many universities that have a faculty of journalism. But a writer and a journalist are two completely different "birds". Writers study at only one university in the country, and that is the Gorky Literary Institute.
This institution existed for a short time and for a long time. The so-called Bryusov Institute among the people is a specialized university that opened in Moscow in 1921 on the initiative of V. Ya. Bryusov. Poets, writers, novelists, critics, playwrights and translators were trained there. Everything is like in Gorky, only the study lasted not five, but three years.
V.Ya. Bryusov absorbed the Lito Narkompros studio, also organized by Valery Yakovlevich, the literary courses of the Palace of Arts and most of the State Institute of the Word. There in a yearalso included the Vocational School of Poetics, where almost all the teachers of the VLHI worked, including Bryusov himself. In 1924, the institute finally received his name - in connection with the widely celebrated anniversary of the poet.
In January 1925, the Moscow Housing Commission decided to transfer a number of universities to Leningrad due to unbearable crowding. VLHI could not move because all but two of the forty teachers sabotaged the change of residence. Thus the institution was liquidated. Students completed their studies at other universities. The Gorky Literary Institute was created taking into account the sad experience of its predecessor. And, it must be admitted, the mistakes were not repeated.
The Institute of Journalism and Literary Creativity cannot in any way be called a literary institute. This educational institution is not state-owned, although it has state accreditation and a license, and state diplomas are awarded to graduates. The Institute of Journalism and Literary Creativity has only one area of study - journalism. There are also preparatory courses. There is no budgetary basis for training. Students choose part-time, part-time and full-time forms of study.
Literary Institute named after A. M. Gorky
This university has always belonged entirely to the Ministry of Culture, since 1992 it has been under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. There are two faculties - part-time and full-time. full-time studentsmaster the five-year program of the specialist: "Literary creativity" and "Translation of fiction".
Specialists are trained in absentia for six years and in one speci alty - "Literary creativity". Future translators from English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Korean study at the Department of Literary Translation. There is also a postgraduate program with doctoral studies in the speci alties: "Russian Language", "Theory of Literature" and "Russian Literature".
How it all began
The initiator of the creation of the Literary Institute was Maxim Gorky. At first, the university was the Evening Workers Literary University, only in 1933 it received its name, which it retains to this day.
During the war, in 1942, the Institute began to train full-time and part-time students. In 1953, full-time two-year Higher Literary Courses were opened for already established writers who need to replenish their humanitarian knowledge and broaden their horizons. In 1983, the Literary Institute was awarded the high Order of Friendship of Peoples.
Literary institutes of a pedagogical profile are located in different parts of Moscow, some in historical areas, but it is simply impossible to find a more iconic place for the location of the Gorky Literary Institute. This is an architectural monument of the eighteenth century, a city estate on Tverskoy Boulevard, where A. I. Herzen was born in 1812. And in the fortieson the nineteenth here, in the literary salon, the regulars were Gogol, Belinsky, Aksakovs, Chaadaev, Baratynsky, Khomyakov, Shchepkin and many other legendary personalities.
Before the very beginning of the twentieth century, a publishing house was located here, and in the twenties - numerous writers' organizations. Literary evenings were held with the participation of Mayakovsky, Blok, Yesenin. This building is described in detail by Herzen, Bulgakov, Mandelstam. Here, right in this building, lived Vyacheslav Ivanov, Daniil Andreev, Osip Mandelstam, Andrey Platonov, as reported by memorial plaques on the building. There is a monument to Herzen in the courtyard.
Teachers have always been and remain stellar at the Literary Institute, no other literary institutes simply could not gather such a number of famous masters. Alexander Zinoviev, Viktor Rozov, Konstantin Paustovsky, Mikhail Svetlov, Konstantin Fedin, Lev Oshanin, Lev Ozerov, Yuri Kuznetsov, Yuri Mineralov and many other equally famous writers, poets, playwrights taught here. Lectures were read by scientists with sonorous names: I. Tolstoy, V. Asmus, A. Reformatsky, G. Vinokur, A. Takho-Godi, S. Radzig, S. Bondi, B. Tomashevsky, V. Kozhinov and no less worthy others.
Vorontsov, Andrey Vitalievich Vasilevsky, Aleksey Nikolaevich Varlamov - Acting Rector of the Literary Institute, Anatoly Vasilyevich Korolev, Ruslan Timofeevich Kireev, Vladimir Andreevich Kostrov, Stanislav Yuryevich Kunyaev, Gennady Nikolaevich Krasnikov, Vladimir Yuryevich Malyagin, Alexander Alexandrovich Mikhailov, Olesya Alexandrovna Nikolaeva, Oleg Olegovich Pavlov, Alexander Evseevich Rekemchuk, Evgeny Borisovich Rein, Inna Ivanovna Rostovtseva, Galina Ivanovna Sedykh, Evgeny Yuryevich Sidorov, Alexander Yuryevich Segen, Sergey Petrovich Tolkachev, Alexander Petrovich Toroptsev, Marietta Omarovna Chudakova. Never have literary institutions had such a constellation of masters.
Applicants - creative competition
Only those who have passed the creative competition and passed the entrance exams can enter the Literary Institute. In the pedagogical literary institutes of Moscow they enter the Unified State Examination, as well as journalism at universities. Here the competition takes place in three stages. First, applicants send their creative work in the chosen direction: twenty (at least) pages of prose text, or two hundred lines of poetry, or twenty pages in literary criticism, dramaturgy, essay and journalism, as well as in literary translation. This test is carried out without the participation of the applicant, moreover, he submits unnamed works, so there can be no prejudice. The Literary Pedagogical Institute does not set such difficult but interesting creative tasks for the applicant.
And only after that you canget the opportunity to pass the remaining subjects in the exam (in writing or orally). This is traditionally Russian literature, the Russian language, the history of Russia. If creative work and passing exams satisfies the commission, the future student is invited to the second stage of the creative competition - this is a written sketch. This is followed by an interview, the most important moment for those who have passed the first two stages. Neither universities nor pedagogical literary institutes in Russia conduct such a thorough selection of applicants. Creative competitions exist, in addition to the Literary Institute, only for applicants who have chosen a profession in the field of theater, cinema or universities of architectural and artistic areas.
Prepare students in two directions in parallel. This is a general humanitarian one - with a bias in literary criticism and the Russian language, as well as a creative one. The development of creativity occurs during the seminars. Other literary institutions, if they existed, would probably work the same way - the form is the most optimal.
Seminars are always held on Tuesdays - traditionally. On this day, no other classes are planned for the student - only a seminar, the leader of which is necessarily the Master.
This is always a day of great excitement and nerves, often tears, sometimes quarrels. However, the opposite also happens. The only pity is that there is no opportunity to attend other people's seminars, because everything is at the same time. You can't miss yours, it's the best anyway. Seminars at the Literary Institute have always been led by prominent Soviet writers. Now the largest writers of Russia. The same workshopsare also held for students of the Higher Literary Courses, which the author of this article was lucky enough to complete. Engaged on Tuesdays and students of the Higher School of Literary Translation. It should be noted that the Literary Institute has courses for editors and proofreaders.
Cooperation of this university with foreign colleagues is developing systematically, in accordance with the country's policy in terms of strengthening the authority in the international arena of our higher school. Both scientific and academic ties are significantly expanding, the university is striving for the educational space of Europe in order to integrate graduates and students into the global literary process.
The best achievements of Russian literature are promoted in foreign countries and CIS countries. There are links with such universities as Trinity College in Ireland, the University of Cologne in Germany, the University of Bergamo in Italy, the Joseon and Konkuk Universities in the Republic of Korea, the University of Paris-8 in France, the University of Suzhou in China. Also, the Russia-Korea cultural center has been operating at the Literary Institute for a long time. Every year, foreign students graduate from this creative university among the students of the Russian Federation - both from the CIS countries and far abroad.
The Literary Institute occupies the top level of the rating of Russian universities in terms of the ratio of professors and students: there is one teacher with a degree for every two students. What literary institutions can boast suchratio?
Most of the teachers here are world renowned. The teachers of the Department of Literary Excellence are listed above, the names are so significant that it is hardly possible to add any enthusiasm that has not yet sounded, everything has already been done.
Two Departments of Literature
Absolutely magical department with a magnificent professor Boris Nikolaevich Tarasov at the head, with an associate professor - the most eloquent Tatyana Borisovna Gvozdeva, with a charming professor Stanislav Bemovich Dzhimbinov, with a wonderful Anita Borisovna Mozhaeva, an associate professor … At their lectures, pens fall out of the hands of enchanted students. What other literary institutes would be needed if this one exists?
The Department of Russian Classical Literature and Slavic Studies, headed by Professor Mikhail Yuryevich Stoyanovskiy, is in no way inferior. All the teachers there are wonderful, but who can compare with Professor Anatoly Sergeevich Demin? All other literary institutes in Moscow do not have creative educational directions, so the teachers at the Literary Institute are also special.
Department of Social Sciences
Here, under the guidance of Professor Lyudmila Mikhailovna Tsareva, all sorts of miracles also happen: even students overflowing with poetry begin to adore economics and political science, if lectures are given by Associate Professor Natalya Nikolaevna Kutafina, and to understand historical events, if they communicate with Alexander Sergeevich Orlov, the author of beautiful textbooks and directorMuseum of History of Moscow State University named after Lomonosov. And how nice it is to talk with Olga Vyacheslavovna Zaitseva on the topics of philosophy and aesthetics after class! Almost like listening to her lectures - mesmerizing!
There are simply no unmemorable teachers at this department (and certainly at others too). Literary institutes in Russia, aimed at the study of pedagogy or journalism, may also have good teachers of social sciences. But here the teachers are also highly creative.
Department of Contemporary Russian Literature
Here is headed by the most artistic of the teachers of the Institute - Professor Vladimir Pavlovich Smirnov, his lectures, students probably remember all their lives. Excellent lectures are given by Professor Boris Andreevich Leonov (also, according to students, one of the favorite lecturers), associate professors Igor Ivanovich Bolychev and Sergey Romanovich Fedyakin. In the field of "current" literature, there are simply no specialists more authoritative than the employees of this department - neither in Russia, nor in the world. Moscow literary institutes of a pedagogical, rather than creative, orientation are unlikely to be able to unite so many highly professional teachers under their roof.
Department of Literary Theory and Literary Criticism
There are only three people here, but what! Applicants need to fight with all their might with a high (very high!) Competition for admission to the Literary Institute, if only for the sake of walking along the same corridors. The head of the department is Professor Vladimir Ivanovich Gusev. This isan outstanding literary scholar and literary critic. Chairman of the Board of the Moscow city organization of the Writers' Union of Russia. He is a member of the secretariat of the executive committee of the MSPS (International Community of Writers' Unions), is the editor-in-chief of the magazine "Moscow Bulletin". Great lecturer, smartest person.
Associate professors Sergei Mikhailovich Kaznacheev and Alexei Konstantinovich Antonov are interesting in their own way. A deep knowledge of the material allows them to lecture with such inspiration that students cannot take notes, because they only want to watch and listen. S. M. Kaznacheev held several scientific and practical conferences called "New Realism". A. K. Antonov has a fundamental knowledge of the theory of criticism and literary criticism and has a huge talent as a lecturer. He reads not only to students, but also to graduate students and students of the Higher Literary Courses. Wrote a number of textbooks on literary theory.
In addition to the above, the Literary Institute has three more departments: Russian language and stylistics, foreign languages, literary translation. And on each of them, the teachers are exceptional.