Educational institutions in Russia. State and non-state educational institutions

Science 2023

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Educational institutions in Russia. State and non-state educational institutions
Educational institutions in Russia. State and non-state educational institutions

Educational institutions, according to the Federal Law "On Education", are organizations that carry out the educational process. They implement one or many different directions.

Educational institutions provide education, training, development of pupils (students), are legal entities. In his life, a person goes through several stages of psychological, mental, physical development. With the help of public education, a small person copes with all levels.

state educational institution

Stages of development

A small child is greeted by preschool educational institutions (DOE). Then comes primary school, where the child realizes the uniqueness of his personality. The third stage of its development is general basic education (gymnasium, lyceum). Then the child receives a secondary or higher education, afterwhich implies postgraduate training.

Educational institutions of an additional type: children's art houses, art schools, sports clubs, dance studios are aimed at the additional development of children. In them, children study after the end of the lessons. It also offers training in correctional educational institutions, cadet corps.

Education is the most important element of the educational system, which, in addition to educational activities, additionally includes the upbringing and development of each child.

specificity of national education


A state educational institution of this type, depending on the direction of activity, is divided into several types. Kindergarten of a general developing type, in which one or several areas of development of the younger generation are singled out as a priority. For example, a kindergarten specializes in the physical, artistic, aesthetic, intellectual development of preschoolers.

There are also compensatory kindergartens, in which the main focus of work is the correction of deviations in the mental and physical development of children.

Kindergarten of he alth improvement and supervision is intended for preventive, sanitary and hygienic, he alth-improving procedures and activities.

The educational program of an educational institution of a combined type allows a combination of recreational, compensatory, general developmental groups.

Child development centers are organized for mental andphysical development, rehabilitation and correction of pupils of DU.

types of educational organizations

Tasks of preschool institutions

The state educational institution for preschool children is aimed at solving the following tasks:

  • strengthening the physical and mental he alth of preschoolers;
  • personal, intellectual development of the child;
  • implementation of correction when detecting deviations from the normal development of a preschooler;
  • formation of universal values ​​among the younger generation.

DOE has a current account, charter, seal, letterhead. The educational program of an educational institution must comply with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard, developed for preschool education in the Russian Federation.

Children's preschool institution is an educational institution in the Russian Federation that implements general educational programs for preschool children of various kinds, which contribute to the upbringing, education, care, rehabilitation, and care of children from two months to seven years of age.

Private preschools

At present, more and more private (non-state) kindergartens are appearing in the country. In order to obtain permission for such activities, it is necessary to provide a package of documents to the state authorities. Realizepedagogical activity in private kindergartens can only be professional educators with a state diploma. They work on developing programs, similar to the activities of colleagues in public preschools.

budget educational institution

Features of national education

Municipal educational institutions are divided into several types. Among them are gymnasiums, cadet corps, shift (evening) schools, educational labor colonies. They also include the main general education, primary schools.

A budgetary educational institution for children of primary school age provides continuity between preschool and primary school education, development, education.

Teachers provide optimal conditions for the development of communicative, creative, intellectual abilities of students, form in them a positive attitude towards their native language and culture.

The organization of the learning process in the primary grades is characterized by a calendar (annual), lesson plans, as well as a lesson schedule.

types of educational institutions


Among the main government institutions are:

  • primary comprehensive schools;
  • main educational institutions;
  • high schools;
  • major schools;
  • gymnasiums (provide a detailed study of various areas: humanitarian, scientific);
  • lyceums with differentprofiles.

Private schools

In addition to free lyceums and gymnasiums designed to create individual educational trajectories for each student, private (commercial) educational institutions are now appearing in the country.

Students of such schools take final final exams in the same way as students of public (free) educational organizations. Only upon successful completion of the final certification and the unified state exam, students of private institutions receive state-recognized certificates, have the right to enter secondary and higher educational institutions.

Special secondary education

In educational institutions of vocational education are accepted on the basis of incomplete and complete secondary education, depending on the profile and focus. There is a certain procedure for the admission of students, established by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. A vocational educational institution operates on the basis of educational programs that meet the requirements of the standards at this stage of education.

vocational education institutions

Higher education

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, numerous non-state (fee-paying) educational institutions of the highest level began to appear in Russia. Among the main disadvantages of this type of education, it is necessary to note the absence of a state document confirming the presence of higher education.

Without state accreditation, commercial higher education institutionseducation do not have the right to conduct educational activities, accept, train, graduate students.

Due to the fact that graduates of commercial educational institutions of the highest level had a low level of quality of knowledge, were not in demand on the labor market, many of these Russian universities and academies were closed by decision of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.

options for educational organizations

Summing up

Currently, both private (paid) and state (free) educational organizations of various levels operate in the Russian Federation. Insufficient funding of preschool institutions has led to the emergence of private kindergartens. Of course, when organizing them, entrepreneurs are obliged to observe all the constitutional rights of small citizens of our country, in particular, to receive education and development. The state also closely monitors the programs implemented in paid (non-state) institutions at all levels, from kindergarten to higher specialized education. In case of violations of the law "On Education", the state has the right to close a non-state educational institution.

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