Communication is different - personal, formal, business, ritual. All of them have certain differences from each other in terms of the relations of participants, goals and forms of behavior. A special type of communication is business. It is based on the interaction of people pursuing the goal of exchanging information in the course of their activities. In addition, business communication has a specific result, which is a product obtained as a result of joint activities. It can be power, career, information, as well as emotional experiences and intellectual analysis.
Definition of concept
Business communication, like any other, has a historical character. Its manifestation takes place at all levels of the social system, and in various forms. When studying the theoretical foundations of business communication, it becomes clear that it arises in connection with a certain type of activity taking place, the result of which is the release of a product or the receipt of one or another effect. Each of the parties enteringamong themselves in such relationships, it is necessary to adhere to the standards and norms of human behavior, including ethical ones.
The basics of business communication are processes that allow the exchange of work experience and certain information. In a market economy, this allows you to get the maximum profit. What else underlies business communication? Such interaction is impossible without physical and psychological contacts, as well as the exchange of emotions. That is why the ability to build relationships with people and find an approach to a particular person is so important.
On the one hand, it may seem that business communication is not such a complicated process. After all, already from early childhood, people begin to get acquainted with communicative connections. Nevertheless, business communication, however, like any other that exists in society, is quite multifaceted. It has various types, has many directions and functions. Various sciences are engaged in the study of its certain aspects, including ethology, sociology, philosophy and psychology.
Let's consider the basics of business communication, its types, principles, and features.
What is this?
Business communication is an interaction, each participant of which has its own status. So, he can be a boss, subordinate, colleague or partner. In the case when people who are on different steps of the career ladder communicate with each other (for example, a manager and an employee), we can talk aboutvertical in relationships. In other words, such communication is subordinate. Business communication can take place with equal cooperation. Such relationships are considered horizontal.
Business communications take place all the time in official institutions, in schools, universities and at work. This is a dialogue between subordinates and superiors, students and teachers, competitors and partners. And the achievement of the goal depends on how the interlocutors are familiar with the basics of business communication, its methods, forms and rules.
Business communication differs from all other types of communication in that it has:
- Regimentation. The foundations of business communication are established rules for limiting communications. They are determined by the type of interaction, its tasks and goals, the degree of officiality, as well as cultural and national traditions. At the same time, business etiquette, as the basis of modern business communication, serves as the main tool for organizing the process of business relations.
- Strict observance by all participants of communication of their role role. It must meet the requirements of the specific situation. Also, all participants in business communication need to play their specific role (partner, subordinate, boss, etc.).
- Strictness regarding the use of speech means. Each of the participants in business communication must speak a professional language and know the necessary terminology. Not in speechcolloquial expressions and words, dialectisms and abuse should be present.
- High responsibility for the result. All participants in business communication must be punctual, organized, true to their word and obligatory. In addition, they should strictly observe the moral and ethical standards of communications.
In a production environment, business communication allows each person to satisfy their need for communication, exchange experiences, learn something new, and evaluate their own professional qualities. The importance of such communications during negotiations is great. Knowledge of the psychological foundations of business communication allows you to maintain your reputation and image, as well as achieve success in business.
Among the main functions of this kind of communication are the following:
- Instrumental. This feature considers communication as a control mechanism.
- Interactive. In this case, communication is a means of bringing colleagues, business partners, professionals, etc.
- Self-expression. Conducted business communication allows a person to assert himself and demonstrate his psychological, personal and intellectual potential.
- Socialization. Through communication, a person develops his business etiquette and communication skills.
- Expressive. It is expressed in emotional experiences and demonstrations of understanding.
All of the functions listed above are closely related to each other. Moreover, through their implementation, they constitute the essence of the business itself.communication.
In order for the negotiations to be as successful as possible, a certain atmosphere must be created. The goal can be achieved only if the partners, communicating with each other, will feel as comfortable as possible. And knowledge of the principles of the psychological foundations of business communication will help in this. These include:
- Exercising control over emotions. This point is quite important. The fact is that surging emotions literally in a matter of seconds can destroy those relationships that have been built over the years. After all, they will show a person from a clearly negative side. And even in the case when the interlocutor allows himself unrestrained behavior, you should not react to it. Every person should realize that emotions and work are incompatible things.
- The desire to understand the interlocutor. Adhering to the basics of the psychology of business communication, the parties need to be attentive to each other's opinions. After all, in the case when one of the participants in the negotiations only talks about his own interests, without listening to the other side, this will not allow to come to a unified agreement and get positive results from the meeting.
- Concentration of attention. Business communication is often a monotonous process. This leads to the fact that a person is able to miss some fundamental moments of the negotiations. That is why during a conversation it is necessary to focus the attention of partners on the topic, when it becomes obvious that they have ceased to focus on the really importantthings.
- The truthfulness of the conversation. The success of a business is largely determined by trusting relationships. Of course, opponents can keep something back or deliberately cunning a little to raise their own dignity. Nevertheless, as for the fundamental points, it is necessary here that things be said that correspond to reality. This is how businessmen earn their reputation.
- The ability not to express a subjective opinion. The foundations of ethics and psychology of business communication imply the ability to separate the interlocutor from the object of negotiations. In other words, a personal attitude towards a person should never have an impact on working moments. This is the main difference between personal and business communication. It often happens that an opponent who is extremely unpleasant to the interlocutor can be very useful for the cause. In this case, you should not miss out on the opportunity. After all, it often happens that very nice and good people turn out to be bankrupt in business terms.
The above principles should be considered by every person who wants to acquire the skill of proper negotiation and earn a good reputation as a business partner.
In what case is it likely to achieve a positive decision during the negotiations? To do this, a businessman needs to know the moral foundations of business communication. Communications between people, pursuing a commercial goal, must comply with the following principles:
- The basis of business communication should bethe interests of the business, and not their own ambitions and desires. Despite its obviousness, people violate this principle most often. After all, not every person is able to find the strength to give up personal interests that are in conflict with the benefits that will be obtained for the cause. This is especially evident in those moments when something can be done with impunity, and the only judge in this case will be one's own conscience.
- Integrity. What is at the heart of business communication? The organic inability of a person to commit a dishonorable act. Decency is always based on such moral qualities as a heightened sense of conscience, when there is an awareness that silence or inaction will become dishonorable, as well as a constant desire to preserve one's honor in the form of nobility, incorruptibility and self-esteem.
- The ability to behave equally with any person, regardless of his social or official status.
- Integrity. A person should not only have firm convictions, but also actively strive for their implementation and implementation. This is manifested in the fact that he will never compromise his own principles, even if there is a threat and there are obstacles to personal well-being.
- Goodwill. This principle is contained in the organic need to do good to people, which is the main category of ethics. Any professional activity is aimed at meeting the social needs of a person. And in this sense, he produces something useful, that is, he does good. Adhering to this principle,a professional performs not only what is included in his duties, but also does much more than this, receiving emotional satisfaction and appreciation in return.
- Respect for human dignity. Such a principle can be realized thanks to such moral qualities brought up in a person as delicacy and politeness, caring, courtesy and tact. At the same time, all this should be combined with poise, restraint and correctness. Here, the ethical foundations of business communication are in close contact with morality. This should also take place in statutory relations, which in no way allow the humiliation of the dignity of a subordinate by a leader. Respect for a person, which underlies the ethics of business communication, allows people not to experience mutual resentment, irritation and discontent. It protects against nervous shocks, stress and other negative consequences of communication. Ignorance of the basics of business communication ethics by a person or inability to apply them in practice can negatively affect the opinion of others about him.
- Expediency and reasonableness. This principle underlies all ethical rules and norms. Moreover, it is especially necessary in those forms of human communication in which it is very important to adhere to etiquette. Subject to expediency and reasonableness, a favorable moral and psychological atmosphere is created in the service team, which greatly increases the efficiency of employees.
Cultural norms of behavior
Let's briefly consider the basics of business communication etiquette. Knowledge of the rules and norms of conduct, and,of course, their observance brings pleasure and benefit to their owner. A person, if he is well brought up, will feel confident everywhere, easily overcoming the psychological barriers of communication, without experiencing an inferiority complex and getting the opportunity to constantly expand his social circle.
The rules of etiquette, which form the basis of effective business communication, are a set of norms necessary for treating people politely. In official communications, in this case, the correspondence of appearance, manners, gestures, speech, posture, posture, facial expressions, clothing and tone, as well as the social role that is inherent in a person and his social and business status, is considered. Such requirements become especially important during participation in any strictly regulated event that requires compliance with rigidly established boundaries. Failure to comply with the rules of etiquette in this case will be considered as an insult to the dignity of the participants in communications, which will cause their disapproval.
But it is worth noting that even with a thorough knowledge of the basics of professional business communication, it is not always possible to avoid some mistakes. After all, the norms of etiquette should not be applied mechanically. In each specific situation, they are subject to some adjustment. And to do this will allow professional tact. Only he will protect the employee from making mistakes.
Let's consider how the head of the company should behave during a business conversation. When greeting its participants, it is necessary to say hello politelywith them, shaking hands with each (while not squeezing it too hard). Before starting the conversation itself, you should offer tea or coffee to the interlocutors. Such a tradition appeared not so long ago. However, today almost everyone adheres to it. A cup of aromatic drink will allow a person to get rid of some tension and positively tune in to the conversation.
Knowing the basics of business communication ethics will help prevent an unpleasant situation. If an oversight occurs during the negotiation process, you should apologize to the interlocutors for the inconvenience caused to them. And only after that the conversation can be continued.
Compliance with the ethical foundations of business communication suggests that when discussing business issues with partners, you should try to answer all their questions. In cases where, for one reason or another, it is impossible to do this directly during the conversation, you should apologize and ask for time to think, indicating a specific date.
When negotiating, you need to keep a notebook with a pen, writing down all the most important information voiced. You shouldn't raise your voice. You need to speak clearly and clearly. Clothing style must be business-like.
Types of business communication
The main objective of service communications is always to achieve a specific goal.
At the same time, you can solve work issues using various types of business communication. Among them:
- Business correspondence. This type of business communication is consideredcorrespondence. When using it, all information is conveyed to the opponent in writing. No personal meeting is scheduled. Despite the fact that a lot of people are engaged in correspondence every day, compiling business letters is a rather difficult task, because they must be drawn up taking into account all the necessary requirements and sent on time. When presenting information in such a letter, it is important to adhere to the basics of the psychology of business communication and its ethical standards. Concreteness of the text and its brevity are valued. It should be borne in mind that the conduct of such correspondence allows partners to draw some conclusions about each other.
- Business conversation. It is this type of communication that is the most common form of official communication. The leaders of all companies must conduct conversations with the staff. Such conversations should have a positive impact on the team and business development. This kind of business communication allows you to find out some business issues, which makes it easier to complete the tasks facing the company.
- Business meeting. This type of service communication can improve the performance of the company. At meetings, urgent issues are resolved, the most effective interaction between employees or partners is achieved. Sometimes meetings are not held with the boss and his subordinates. Gather together to discuss current issues, sometimes only heads of departments or organizations.
- Public speaking. This type of business communication is necessary to convey to the audience any information,having a presentation or fact-finding character. And here special requirements are imposed on the speaker. It is mandatory for him to understand the subject of his report. The text he pronounces should be logical and clear. Equally important is self-confidence.
- Business negotiations. This type of communication is considered an integral part of doing business. Negotiations allow you to quickly eliminate any problems that have arisen, set goals and objectives, take into account the opinion of the interlocutors and draw the right conclusions. They are held, as a rule, between the heads of various enterprises. Each of them demonstrates his position during business negotiations. At the same time, the parties must come to a common decision in order to satisfy the interests of all partners.
Social foundations of business communications
Business communication that takes place between people is derived from their activities. It fixes the content and social orientation of various types of production relations, the importance of communication for the life of the whole society, as well as for its individual social groups and individuals.
Business communication between people is a fairly universal process and at the same time quite diverse. It occurs in various fields of activity and at all its levels. This must be taken into account when mastering the social foundations of business communication, knowledge of which will allow a deeper understanding of the conditions in which interaction between partners will be carried out.
One of the mainThe peculiarity of such communications is that the spiritual qualities of people find their manifestation in them. All partners entering into a relationship are subjects of interpersonal business relations. They are people of different ages, with different moral, physiological, psychological and intellectual properties. Each of them has his own strong-willed and emotional attitude, worldview, value orientations and ideological attitudes. The manifestation of any of these properties allows, to a certain extent, to reveal the spiritual world of a partner and acts as an element of the content of interpersonal spiritual interaction.
Communication of professionals
It's not easy to be tolerant of each other. Nevertheless, each of us must be well aware that all people are different, and it is necessary to perceive the other person as he is.
This is also indicated by the moral and psychological foundations of the professional and business communication of a teacher, who, when in contact with his student, must, first of all, show tolerance. The essence of such communication comes down to the application in the learning process of such principles that allow creating optimal prerequisites for the formation of self-expression in children and for teaching a culture of dignity, while eliminating the factor of fear of an erroneous answer. Tolerance in the 21st century is one of the ways to create harmonious relationships that allow a person to more easily integrate into society.
Pedagogical communication withstudents should be, above all, productive. Its main goal is the spiritual enrichment of the two sides. That is, both the teacher and his pupil. But getting positive results is possible only when the teacher will show:
- respect for the spiritual world of the child;
- interest in what the student considers valuable;
- respect for the individuality of the pupil with all the qualities inherent in his personality.
Educator's business communication should adhere to the following principles:
- non-violence (giving the student the right to be who he/she is);
- respect for the work of knowing the child;
- respect for the tears and failures of the pupil;
- unconditional love for a child;
- respect for the identity of the student;
- reliance on the positive character traits of the child.
As an example of professional communications, consider the basics of business communication in the work of a medical registrar. This person has to communicate with people who seek help. That is why it is so important that this specialist works as competently as possible. He should remember that any negotiation is a dialogue. When they switch to a monologue (on one side or the other), there can be no question of any productive cooperation. And for this, the medical registrar needs to have the ability to listen, asking the right questions at the right time. They should not divert the conversation and will allow you to clarify as much as possibletopic under discussion.
To start listening effectively to the visitor, the medical receptionist will need:
- Stop talking. After all, it is simply impossible to speak and listen at the same time. The speaker should be helped to loosen up so that the person has a feeling of freedom.
- Show the visitor that you are willing to listen. In this case, you need to act with the utmost interest. Listening to a person, you must try to understand him, and not try to look for reasons for objection.
- Eliminate annoying moments. To do this, you need to stop tapping on the table, shifting papers, not being distracted by phone calls.
- Empathize with the speaker and try to put himself in his position.
- Be patient. There is no need to try to save time and interrupt the person.
- Restrain your own emotions. If a person is angry, then he is likely to begin to give the wrong meaning to words.
- Do not allow criticism and disputes. Otherwise, the speaker will become defensive and will simply shut up.
- Ask questions. They will allow you to cheer up the visitor, as he will understand that he is being listened to. Moreover, it is necessary to ask questions during 30% of the conversation time.
As you can see, the nature and content of business communication in each field of activity have their own characteristics. All of them are studied by specialists working in the field of philosophy, ethics, sociology and psychology. It is no coincidence that a discipline appeared in the program for university students, which is called “Business Communication”.It allows us to consider the ethical and psychological, and to be more precise, the organizational and moral problems of official communications. There are also textbooks for this discipline. One of them was written by A.S. Kovalchuk. The basics of business communication are explained in this manual in a very accessible way.
The book reveals the conditions and factors of optimal work aimed at creating a charming image. Also in this work, which is called "Fundamentals of imageology and business communication", the author considers the possibility of using the results of such activities. In addition to university students, such a manual may well be of interest to people who are looking for a way to express themselves, as well as representatives of professions whose success depends on the realization of creative abilities.