Archaeological excavations: locations. Where are the excavations in Russia

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Archaeological excavations: locations. Where are the excavations in Russia
Archaeological excavations: locations. Where are the excavations in Russia
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Archaeological excavations are the opening of a layer of earth in order to study the monuments of former settlement sites. Unfortunately, this process leads to partial destruction of the cultural layer of soil. Unlike laboratory experiments, it is not possible to repeat the archaeological excavation of the site. In order to open the ground, in many states a special permit is required. In Russia (and before that in the RSFSR), "open sheets" - this is the name of a documented consent - are drawn up at the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences. Carrying out this kind of work on the territory of the Russian Federation in the absence of the specified document is an administrative offense.

archaeological excavations

Base for excavation

Land cover tends to increase in mass over time, resulting in gradual hiding of artifacts. It is for the purpose of their discovery that an opening of the earth layer is carried out.An increase in soil thickness can occur for several reasons:

  • Natural accumulation of organic matter in the soil, formed, for example, as a result of decay of the remains of dead plants.
  • Cosmic dust settling on the surface of the earth.
  • Accumulation of waste from human activities.
  • Transportation of soil particles by wind.
  • archaeological excavations are

Tasks

The main goal pursued by scientists, carrying out archaeological excavations, is the study of an ancient monument and the restoration of its significance in the historical process. For a comprehensive, comprehensive study of the cultural layer, it is most preferable when it is completely opened to the full depth. At the same time, even the interests of a particular archaeologist are not taken into account. However, as a rule, only a partial opening of the monument is carried out due to the high labor intensity of the process. Some archaeological excavations, depending on their complexity, can last for years and even decades. Works can be carried out not only for the purpose of studying historical monuments. In addition to archaeological, there is another type of excavation, called "security". In accordance with the legislation, in the Russian Federation they must be carried out before the construction of buildings and various structures. Because otherwise, it is possible that the monuments of antiquity available at the construction site will be lost forever.

archaeological site

Research Progress

First of all, the study of the historical objectbegins with non-destructive methods such as photography, measurement and description. If it becomes necessary to measure the direction and thickness of the cultural layer, sounding is done, trenches or pits are dug. These tools also make it possible to search for an object whose location is known only from written sources. However, the use of such methods is of limited use, since they significantly spoil the cultural layer, which is also of historical interest.

Technology of opening the earth

All stages of research and clearing of historical objects are necessarily accompanied by photographic recording. Conducting archaeological excavations on the territory of the Russian Federation is accompanied by compliance with strict requirements. They are approved in the relevant "Regulations". The document focuses on the need for quality drawings. Recently, they are increasingly issued in electronic form using new computer technologies.

archaeological excavations in Russia

Archaeological excavations in Russia

Not so long ago, Russian archaeologists published a list of the most important discoveries of 2010. The most significant events in this period were the discovery of a treasure in the city of Torzhok, archaeological excavations in Jericho. In addition, the age of the city of Yaroslavl was confirmed. Dozens of scientific expeditions are equipped every year under the guidance of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Their research extends throughout the European part of the Russian Federation, in some parts of the Asianregions of the country and even abroad, for example, in Mesopotamia, Central Asia and the Svalbard archipelago. According to the Director of the Institute Nikolai Makarov at one of the press conferences, during 2010 the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences conducted a total of 36 expeditions. Moreover, only half of them were carried out on the territory of Russia, and the rest - abroad. It also became known that approximately 50% of funding comes from the state budget, revenues from the Russian Academy of Sciences and such scientific institutions as the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation. While the rest of the resources intended for work related to the preservation of archaeological heritage sites are allocated by investors-developers.

conducting archaeological excavations

Fanagoria Research

According to N. Makarov, in 2010 there was also a significant shift in the study of monuments of ancient times. This is especially true of Phanagoria, the largest ancient city found on the territory of Russia, and the second capital of the Bosporan kingdom. During this time, scientists studied the buildings of the acropolis, and found a large building, whose age dates back to the middle of the 4th century BC. e. All archaeological excavations in Phanagoria are conducted under the guidance of Doctor of Historical Sciences Vladimir Kuznetsov. It was he who identified the found building as a public building, in which state meetings were once held. A notable feature of this building is the hearth, in whichearlier, a burning fire was maintained daily. It was believed that as long as its flame was shining, the state life of the ancient city would never stop.

Research in Sochi

Another significant event of 2010 was the excavations in the capital of the 2014 Olympics. A group of scientists led by Vladimir Sedov, Doctor of Art History - leading researcher at the Institute of Archeology, conducted research near the construction site of the Russian Railways terminal near the village of Veseloye. Here, later, the remains of a Byzantine temple of the IX-XI centuries were discovered.

archaeological excavations Crimea

Excavations in the village of Krutik

This is a trade and craft settlement of the 10th century, located in the forests of Belozorye, Vologda Oblast. Archaeological excavations in this area are headed by Sergey Zakharov, Candidate of Historical Sciences. In 2010, 44 coins minted in Central Asia, the countries of the caliphate and the Middle East were found here. Merchants used them to pay for furs, especially valued in the Arab East.

Archaeological excavations. Crimea

The historical veil of this territory is lifted largely due to the research work that often takes place here. Some expeditions have been going on for years. Among them: "Kulchuk", "Seagull", "Belyaus", "Kalos-Limen", "Cembalo" and many others. If you want to go to archaeological excavations, you can join a group of volunteers. However, as a rule, volunteers have to pay for their stay in the country on their own. In Crimeaa huge number of expeditions are carried out, but most of them are of a short-term nature. In this case, the group size is small. Research is carried out by experienced workers and professional archaeologists.

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