Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna. Every person knows this name. But most remember only that she was the wife of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Yes this is true. But Krupskaya herself was an outstanding political figure and teacher of her time.
Her date of birth is February 14, 1869. The family of Nadezhda Konstantinovna belonged to the category of impoverished nobles. Father, Konstantin Ignatievich, a former officer (lieutenant), was an adherent of revolutionary democratic concepts, shared the ideas of the organizers of the Polish uprising. But he did not particularly care about the well-being of the family, so the Krupskys lived simply, without frills. Her father died in 1883 when Nadezhda was in her teens. Konstantin Ignatievich did not leave a fortune after himself to his wife and daughter, but, despite the lack of funds, his mother, Elizaveta Vasilyevna, always surrounded her daughter with love, tenderness and care.
Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna studied at the gymnasium. A. Obolenskaya, where she received a prestigious education at that time. Motherdid not particularly restrict her freedom, believing that each person should choose his own path in life. Elizaveta Vasilievna herself was very pious, but, seeing that her daughter did not gravitate towards religion, she did not persuade her and force her to faith. The mother believed that only a husband who would love and take care of her daughter could be the key to happiness.
Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna in her youth, after graduating from high school, often thought about the injustice that reigned around. She was outraged by the arbitrariness of the royal power, which oppressed ordinary people, bringing them poverty, pain and suffering.
She found allies in the Marxist circle. There, having studied the teachings of Marx, she realized that there is only one way to solve all the problems of the state - revolution and communism.
The biography of Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna, like her whole life, is now inextricably linked with the ideas of Marxism. It was they who determined her future life path.
She taught the proletariat for free at the Sunday evening school, where the workers came to get at least some knowledge. The school was far enough away, beyond the Nevskaya Zastava, but this did not frighten the desperate and courageous Nadezhda. There she not only taught the working people to write and count, but also promoted Marxism, actively participating in the unification of small circles into a single organization. V. I. Lenin, who arrived in St. Petersburg, completed this process. This is how the "Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class" was formed, where Krupskaya occupied one of the central places.
Meet V. I. Lenin
They met in early 1896 (February). ButAt first, Vladimir Ilyich showed no interest in Nadezhda. On the contrary, he became close to another activist, Apollinaria Yakubova. After talking with her for some time, he even decided to propose to Apollinaria, but was refused. Lenin did not have such a passion for women as he did for the ideas of the revolution. Therefore, because of the refusal, he was not upset at all. And Nadezhda, meanwhile, increasingly admired his loy alty to revolutionary ideas, his enthusiasm and leadership qualities. They began to communicate more often. The subject of their conversations were Marxist ideas, dreams of revolution and communism. But they also sometimes talked about personal and intimate things. So, for example, only Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna knew the nationality of Vladimir Ilyich's mother. From the majority of those around him, Lenin hid his mother's Swedish-German and Jewish roots.
Arrest and exile
Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna was arrested in 1897 along with several other members of the union. She was expelled from St. Petersburg for three years. At first she was exiled to the village of Shushenskoye, located in Siberia. Lenin was also in exile there at that time.
They were married in July 1898. The wedding ceremony was more than modest. The newlyweds exchanged wedding rings made of copper penny. The groom's family was against this marriage. Relatives of Vladimir Ilyich immediately disliked his chosen one, believing that she was dry, ugly and unemotional. The situation was aggravated by the fact that Krupskaya and Lenin were never able to have children. But Nadezhda Konstantinovna put her whole soul into love for her husband, becoming his comrade, colleagueand true friend. She, along with Vladimir Ilyich, stood at the origins of communism and took an active part in organizing party affairs, paving the way for revolution.
While in exile, Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna (see photo in her youth below) writes her first book. It was called "Woman Worker". This work, permeated with the ideas of Marxism, tells about a working woman, about how hard it is for her now, and how it would be if the autocracy could be overthrown. In the event of the victory of the proletariat, the woman was waiting for liberation from oppression. The author chose the pseudonym Sablina. The book was illegally published abroad.
The link ended in the spring of 1901. Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna spent her last year in Ufa, from where she went to her husband. VI Lenin at that time was abroad. The wife followed him. Even abroad, party work did not stop. Krupskaya is active in propaganda activities, working as a secretary in the editorial offices of well-known Bolshevik publications (“Vperyod”, “Proletariy”)
When the revolution of 1905-1907 began, the couple returned to St. Petersburg, where Nadezhda Konstantinovna became secretary of the party's Central Committee.
Starting from 1901, Vladimir Ilyich began to sign his printed works with the pseudonym Lenin. Even in the history of his pseudonym, as in all life, his wife, Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna, played an important role. The real name of the "leader" - Ulyanov - at that time was already known in government circles. And when heit was necessary to travel abroad, then, in view of his political position, there were justified fears about the issuance of a foreign passport and leaving the country. The way out of the situation was found unexpectedly. Krupskaya's longtime friend Olga Nikolaevna Lenina responded to a request for help. She, driven by social democratic ideas, secretly took a passport from her father Nikolai Yegorovich Lenin, helped to forge some data (date of birth). It was with this name that Lenin went abroad. After this incident, the pseudonym stuck with him for life.
Life in Paris
In 1909 the couple decided to move to Paris. There he met Inessa Armand. Nadezhda and Inessa were a bit similar in character, both confidently followed the communist canons. But, unlike Krupskaya, Armand was also a bright personality, a mother of many children, an excellent hostess, the soul of the company and a dazzling beauty.
Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna is a revolutionary to the core. But she was also a wise and sensitive woman. And she realized that her husband's interest in Inessa went far beyond party activities. In agony, she found the strength to accept this fact. In 1911, having shown the maximum of female wisdom, she herself suggested that Vladimir Ilyich dissolve the marriage. But Lenin, on the contrary, unexpectedly ended relations with Armand.
Nadezhda Konstantinovna had so many party affairs that she had no time to worry. She threw herself into work. Her duties included exchanging data with undergroundparty members in Russia. She secretly sent them books, helped organize revolutionary activities, pulled her comrades out of trouble, organized escapes. But at the same time, she devoted a lot of time to the study of pedagogy. She was interested in the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the field of education. She studied the organization of school affairs in such European countries as France and Switzerland, got acquainted with the works of great teachers of the past.
In 1915, Nadezhda Konstantinovna finished work on the book "People's Education and Democracy". For her, she received high praise from her husband. This first Marxist work, written by Krupskaya, talked about the need to create educational institutions where ordinary workers could receive a polytechnic education. For this book, Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna (her photo is presented in the article) received the title of Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences.
Return to Russia
The return to Russia took place in April 1917. There, in Petrograd, agitation and propaganda mass work occupied all her time. Performances at enterprises in front of the proletariat, participation in rallies with soldiers, organizing meetings of soldiers - these are the main activities of Nadezhda Konstantinovna. She propagated Lenin's slogans about the transfer of all power to the Soviets, talked about the desire of the Bolshevik Party for a socialist revolution.
At that difficult time, when Vladimir Ilyich was forced to hide in Helsingorfs (Finland) from persecutionProvisional Government, Nadezhda Konstantinovna, posing as a housekeeper, came to visit him. Through her, the Central Committee of the party received instructions from its leader, and Lenin learned about the state of affairs in his homeland.
Krupskaya was one of the organizers and participants of the Great October Socialist Revolution, being directly involved in its preparation in the Vyborg region and Smolny.
Death of V. I. Lenin
Despite the fact that Armand Lenin broke off relations with Inessa a few years ago, his feelings for her have not cooled down. But work for him has always been the most important priority in life, and relations with Armand dragged on and distracted from party activities, so he did not regret his decision.
When Inessa died of a sudden onset of tuberculosis, Vladimir Ilyich was struck by this. For him, it was a real blow. His contemporaries claim that a mental wound greatly aggravated his he alth and brought the hour of death closer. Vladimir Ilyich loved this woman and could not come to terms with her departure. Armand's children remained in France, and Lenin asks his wife to bring them to Russia. Of course, she could not refuse her dying husband. He passed away in 1924. And after his death, Nadezhda Konstantinovna was no longer the same. Her "god" was no longer around, and life without him turned into existence. Nevertheless, she found the strength to carry on further work to promote public education.
People's Commissariat of Education
Nadezhda Konstantinovna worked in the People's Committee of Education immediatelyafter the revolution. She continued the struggle for the creation of a labor polytechnic school. Raising children in the spirit of communism became the centerpiece of her life.
Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna, whose photo, surrounded by pioneers, is located below, doted on children. She sincerely tried to make their lives happier.
Krupskaya also made a great contribution to the education of the female half of the population. Actively attracted women to participate in socialist construction.
Nadezhda Konstantinovna stood at the origins of the creation of the pioneer organization, made a great contribution to its development. But at the same time, she not only coordinated the activities of the organization, but also participated in direct work with children. It was the pioneers who asked her to write her autobiography. Krupskaya Nadezhda Konstantinovna, whose brief biography is set out by herself in the work “My Life”, was writing it with great excitement. She dedicated this work to all the pioneers of the country.
Last years of life
Nadezhda Konstantinovna's books on pedagogy today are of historical value only for those few researchers who are interested in the views of the Bolsheviks on the upbringing of children. But the true contribution of Krupskaya to the history of our country is the support and assistance that she provided throughout her life to her husband Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. He was her idol and companion. He was her "god". After his death, Stalin, who came to power, tried with all his might to remove it frompolitical scene. Lenin's widow was an eyesore for him, from which he tried in every way to get rid of. Colossal psychological pressure was put on her. In a touching biography, made by Stalin's decree, many facts of her life, both political and personal, were distorted. But she herself could not change the situation. Nadezhda Konstantinovna begged everyone she could to bury her husband. But no one heard her. The realization that the body of a loved one will never find rest, and she herself will never rest next to him, broke her completely.
Her passing was strange and sudden. She announced her decision to speak at the 18th Party Congress. No one knew exactly what she wanted to talk about in her speech. Perhaps in her speech she could hurt Stalin's interests. But be that as it may, on February 27, 1939, she was gone. Three days before, everything was fine. She received guests on February 24. The closest friends came. We sat at a modest table. And in the evening of the same day, she suddenly became ill. The doctor, who arrived three and a half hours later, immediately made a diagnosis: "acute appendicitis, peritonitis, thrombosis." It was necessary to urgently operate, but for reasons that have not been clarified to this day, the operation was not performed.