Representatives of the younger generation of the modern era, including schoolchildren and students, hardly remember that in the years of the birth of Soviet power, this man was a major and authoritative figure on the political Olympus. But today, young men and women are presented with a whole arsenal of modern sources, from which it will not be difficult for them to find out what his biography was. Frunze Mikhail Vasilyevich is both a revolutionary, and a statesman, and an army commander, and a military theorist.
Many historiographers tend to believe that the life of this hero of the revolution resembles a novel with a fascinating plot. Mikhail Vasilievich Frunze, whose brief biography was known to all pioneers and Komsomol members, was twice sentenced to death, but reckless prowess saved him from this terrible fate. However, the death of a revolutionary in 1925 is covered with an aura of mystery.
Political scientists and historians put forward the most odious versions of his death. Some believe that this is the work of the "leader of the peoples", others believe that Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze, a briefwhose biography has long been carefully studied by scientists, was mortally wounded while hunting, others claim that one of the doctors during the operation unsuccessfully made anesthesia with "poisonous" chloroform. One way or another, but the point in this matter will not be put soon. So who is he, Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze, whose brief biography is today described by historians in all details? Consider this question.
Years of childhood and youth
So, Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze. It will not be possible to briefly talk about him, since all the stages of his life contain many remarkable and interesting facts.
He was born on February 2, 1885 in Kyrgyzstan (Pishpek settlement). The father of the future revolutionary worked as a simple paramedic in Turkestan. Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze, whose brief biography is little known to modern youth, received his secondary education in today's capital of Kazakhstan (then the city of Verny). Moreover, for special diligence in studies, the young man was awarded a gold medal.
In 1904, Frunze goes to the city on the Neva and becomes a student at the Polytechnic University.
It was then that the young man began to form views on the political structure in the country. Frunze Mikhail Vasilievich chose the path of a romantic idealist, who generally supported the theory of populism. However, he interpreted it in his own way: it is not necessary to be useful in the countryside or work for the good of the village, work can be done in the city, the main thing is to actively contact workers in factories.
And after a while Frunze's political views have undergone significant changes. Mikhail Vasilievich transformed into an ardent anti-statist, becoming a radicalist with a clearly "leftist" bias. The young man soon left the university, concentrating his efforts on revolutionary propaganda.
In 1904, Frunze Mikhail Vasilyevich, whose photo was previously published in textbooks on the history of the USSR, became a member of the RSDLP. He participated in the events of the First Revolution in Russia and was wounded in the arm. After that, the pseudonym "Comrade Arseniy" firmly entrenched behind Mikhail Frunze (many of his associates knew his other "call signs" - Vasilenko, Trifonych, Mikhailov).
Revolutionary started underground work to overthrow tsarism in Russia. Soon he initiates a strike of textile workers in Ivanovo-Voznesensk, rallying around him a fairly large team of like-minded people. In the same city, Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (the real name in the "party" environment is Mikhailov, Vasilenko) creates the Soviet of Workers' Deputies. Subsequently, he will repeatedly use this political platform for pickets, demonstrations, processions.
At the end of 1905, Mikhail Vasilyevich, together with his associates, takes part in an armed uprising that broke out in the capital on Presnya. Soon fate brings Frunze to the leader of the world proletariat, Vladimir Ulyanov. Their acquaintance takes place at the next congress of the RSDLP, which was organized in the Swedish capital.
Terror and exile
Conducting a revolutionarywork, Frunze often resorted to terror. For example, at the beginning of 1907, Mikhail Vasilyevich initiated an attack to seize the Shuya printing house, as a result of which a law enforcement officer was injured. The sentence for the revolutionary turned out to be more than severe: he was twice sentenced to death. But the public prevented justice. Some of its representatives considered the punishment excessively cruel, in the end the authorities made concessions, mitigating Frunze's punishment. Mikhail Vasilyevich was exiled to hard labor, and then sent to Siberia in the status of an exile (Irkutsk province).
And he was supposed to stay in it until the end of his days.
Return to underground revolutionary work
In 1916, he escapes from exile. First, he ends up in Irkutsk, then in Chita, where, under the name Vasilenko, he gets a job at the local resettlement department. But party comrades did not forget about Mikhail Vasilyevich. His place in the party was one of the key ones. Frunze receives a task: to ensure revolutionary work among the soldiers. After some time in the army, he was able to establish himself as an experienced propagandist and revolutionary. In a landmark for the country in 1917, "Trifonych" fought on the side of the revolutionaries in Moscow.
When the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in the country, the nature of the work performed by Frunze Mikhail Vasilievich also changed. Interesting facts from his biography only confirm that he simply had to make a dizzying career in political life.sphere. Before the October Revolution, its main task was to demoralize the army and abolish bourgeois state institutions. After the victory of the Bolsheviks, he was elected as a deputy of the Constituent Assembly from the "left".
In 1918, Frunze headed the Ivanovo-Voznesensk Provincial Committee of the RCP(b) and received the post of military commissar of the Ivanovo-Voznesensk province. After some time, Mikhail Vasilievich was entrusted with the duties of the military commissar of the Yaroslavl military district, to which eight provinces were subordinate.
Shortly before that, an uprising broke out in Yaroslavl against the new government, so Frunze needed to consolidate soldiers loyal to Bolshevism around him, who would become the backbone of the Red Army.
The essence of work in the army
Of course, "Trifonych" did not have broad theoretical knowledge in terms of competent and flawless preparation and conduct of military operations. However, Frunze Mikhail Vasilievich in the Civil War tried to use the knowledge and experience of military experts, albeit former officers. He regularly contacted people competent in military affairs, asking them for advice on how to act in a given situation. Naturally, Frunze filled in his gaps in the theory of the art of combat with the help of specialized literature. One way or another, but the fact that Mikhail Vasilyevich had leadership qualities, thanks to which he was able to rally and lead numerous detachments of the Red Army, would be a mistake to question. He himself did not hesitate to take a rifleand by personal example to show how to deal with the enemy. And as a result of such battles in 1919, in the vicinity of Ufa, Frunze received a shell shock.
But the main merit of the revolutionary was that he was able to quickly establish and coordinate the work of headquarters and mobilize the rear in emergency situations.
Victory at the front
In 1919, "Trifonych" led the 4th Army of the Eastern Front and began to lead the Southern Group of Forces of the front, which entered into resistance with the White Guard forces of Admiral Kolchak. Frunze carried out several successful military operations (Buguruslan, Belebey, Ufim), as a result of which the positions of the Whites were pushed back first to the Urals, and then to Siberia.
Then Mikhail Vasilyevich ended up on the Turkestan front. He was able to break through the blockade of Turkestan and liberate the province from the Whites. Frunze won the battles with the Separate Orenburg, Separate Ural, Southern, Semerechinsky armies.
At the next stage of his military career, Mikhail Vasilievich is waging war on the Southern Front against General Wrangel. After the end of the Civil War, Frunze gained fame as a commander in the fight against the Ural Cossacks, Kolchak and Wrangel.
In the early 20s, "Trifonych" fought in Ukraine with criminal elements and Makhno's detachments, where he received a bullet.
When the peak of the political confrontation between Stalin and Trotsky came, Frunze headed the Headquarters of the Red Army and became an assistant to the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. Some time later heentrusted with the responsible post of people's commissar for military and naval affairs. In this capacity, he continued to reform the army along the lines of Trotsky. At the same time, Mikhail Vasilyevich did not join the ranks of Stalin's group, adhering to neutrality in the political confrontation.
But in the army "Trifonovich" enjoyed great prestige, which could not but alarm the representatives of the political elite of the USSR.
He died in the autumn of 1925 on the operating table. Recently, Frunze has worsened pain in the abdomen. Doctors repeatedly recorded internal bleeding in Mikhail Vasilyevich. According to doctors, the cause of death was a general blood poisoning.