To make speech emotionally rich, beautiful and expressive, a syntactic means of expression will help. This also includes phonetic and lexical. With their help, they convey information and their own thoughts, influence the listener or reader.
Means of expression: varieties
Syntax is a branch of linguistics that indicates the relationship between words in a sentence and a phrase. He studies intonation, composition of sentences, appeal, homogeneous members. All this serves several functions.
There are several types of stylistic figures:
- Anaphora - the author repeats the same phrase at the beginning of two adjacent sentences.
- Epiphora is a way of using expressions at the end of a sentence to make events colorful.
- Parallelism in the transfer of information reinforces the rhetorical question.
- Ellipsis makes speech come alive by excluding a certain memberoffers.
- Gradation. A way to reinforce each subsequent word in a sentence.
How to make text expressive?
To create an artistic image, you will need such expressive means as anaphora, epithet, parallelism, gradation. With their help, a multifaceted picture is created. As a rule, not one syntactic means of expression is used, but several at once.
- Inversion. The words are not in the right order. The syntactic expressive means makes speech more expressive.
- Default. The author deliberately does not finish something in order to awaken feelings and thoughts in the reader.
- Rhetorical appeal. The answer to the question is not implied. It is important to grab the attention of the listener.
- Antithesis. Contrasting images and concepts.
The lexical and syntactic means of expression are numerous and varied. There is no clear classification, but they are conditionally divided into three groups: phonics, vocabulary and figures. The first includes the sound features necessary to give the text expressiveness. Most often, sound repetition is used in the form of assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia.
In the vocabulary there are words both neutral, which denote concepts without evaluation by the narrator, and those that convey the direct author's attitude. Resources are divided into two groups: basic andspecial. The first includes synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, dialectisms, jargon, archaisms. Increasingly, you can meet neologisms - words that have not yet become familiar. Their number is increasing due to the development of information technologies for the transfer of objects and concepts.
Among the special syntactic means of expression are those that give the text meaning, persuasiveness, and special brightness. These include epithets, comparisons, allegory, metaphor, metonymy, symbol, anaphora, rhetorical questioning.
The word is considered the basis of visual expressiveness of speech. A lexical unit is used not only in a direct, but also in a figurative sense. They talk about a person using the characteristics of an animal. For example, they use the cowardice of a hare, the clumsiness of a bear.
Polysemy often helps, in which words are used in different meanings. Among the lexical and syntactic means of expression, there are several types of groups:
- Homonyms. They sound the same but have different meanings. These include homographs, which change meaning when the stress changes (flour - flour). Homophones are words that are pronounced the same but differ in one or more letters. Homoforms sound the same but are different parts of speech. (I'm on a plane - I'm flying with the flu).
- Synonyms. Syntactic means of artistic expression describe the same concept from different angles. Differsemantic load and stylistic coloring. They help to build a beautiful and bright phrase, in which there will be no tautology. Full are needed for the same situations. Semantic - set off. Contextual colorfully and multifaceted describe a person or event.
- Antonyms. One part of speech with opposite meaning.
What are trails?
Words that are used in a figurative sense make the works bright, convey the main features of the image. Syntactic means of expressiveness of speech are necessary in works in order to show a deeper event or tell about a person.
Fables use allegory. To exaggerate the signs or the action being performed, you need hyperbole. In the 19th century, writers satirically described the vices of society with the help of the grotesque. When the true meaning of the transmitted information is hidden, it is masked under ironic statements. To give inanimate beings the properties of a living being, you will need personification.
Use in fiction
In the process of reading stories, novels, poems, readers pay attention to the fact that each writer adheres to his own writing rules. To reveal the topic, various techniques are used:
- Oxymoron - connects concepts that cannot be together. For example, dead souls.
- Synecdoche is a type of description of the whole through some part. For example, the image of a person is created when describing clothes or appearance.
- Comparison - describing two items usingunions as if.
- Epithets are bright adjective words.
- Metaphor - involves the use of nouns and verbs in a figurative sense.
The syntactic means of expression presented in the table will help to understand what the author wanted to say, what characteristics are inherent in a person or object. With the help of words and expressions, a complete picture of the transmitted images is formed.
Genres of advertising as a means of expression
The concept of "genre" includes a reflection of reality with a number of stable features. This includes the interaction of the author with the picture of life, linguistic and compositional design. Advertising is a delicate syllable. It can be in print, on radio and television, on the Internet.
Above in the table are syntactic expressive means that help convey the necessary information. Advertising can be in the form of leaflets, booklets, magazines. With the help of the poster, they notify the time and place of the event.
To psychologically involve the reader, use "everyday stories". This view resembles such a literary genre as a story. A booklet is an advertising genre that combines folklore and everyday topics. A short invocative message, which consists of one or two sentences, is considered a folklore genre.
Among examples of syntactic expression is a television ad. It can be in the form of a video clip, video, broadcast.
Means of expression: examples
Toto understand how the means of speech are used, you need to pay attention to the author's statements:
- Anaphora. Wait for the rains to come, wait for the storms to come.
- Gradation. We applauded loudly, deafeningly, noisily.
- Inversion. The dress we bought is gorgeous!
- Rhetorical question. Why don't we all gather around the table?
- Epithets. A lonely moon wanders in a sad meadow.
- Incarnation. The water is silent, but the shore is already near.
To make a speech persuasive, various means of expression are used. Colorful turnovers help out during speeches to the public, at rallies, in election campaigns. It must be remembered that they are not used in official business speech. Precise and persuasive speeches will be needed.