Republic of Finland. History of Finland. Modern Finland

History 2023

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Republic of Finland. History of Finland. Modern Finland
Republic of Finland. History of Finland. Modern Finland

Finland has been under Swedish and Russian rule for most of its history. After a turbulent twentieth century, when the country was constantly moving from one conflict to another, today stability and prosperity have finally been established there.

Prehistoric period in the history of Finland

The origin of the Finns is a question that still forces scientists to put forward more and more new theories. The first people on the territory of modern Finland were groups of hunters who came from the southeast about nine thousand years ago, that is, immediately after the retreat of the glacier. Archaeological finds indicate that the Kunda culture, which existed in Estonia at that time, was widespread in these territories. Now this cultural tradition is called the Suomusjärvi culture (after the name of the cape where stone axes and processed pieces of slate were first discovered).

In the Neolithic era, the cultural groups in Finland were divided into the culture of Pit-Comb Ware and Asbestos Ware, later the culture of battle axes begins to predominate. Settlements of representatives of pit-comb ceramics most oftenlocated on the sea coasts of rivers or lakes, were engaged in fishing, hunting for seals and collecting plants. Representatives of the asbestos culture led a semi-nomadic lifestyle, they were also engaged in hunting and gathering. The battle ax culture is characterized by division into very small groups, nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, agriculture and livestock keeping. With the introduction of bronze technology, the Bronze Age of the same name begins.

Republic of Finland

Already in those days in the south and west there were important contacts with Scandinavia by sea. From there, bronze processing technologies penetrated. New religious ideas appeared, changes took place in the economy, and permanent farm settlements began to appear. Bronze was an expensive material for the locals, so natural stone was also quite common.

Currently, many researchers are inclined to believe that the national language of Finland began to form as early as a thousand and a half thousand years before our era. Modern Finnish arose as a result of contacts between different tribes. Around the same time, there was a division into three main branches of the local population: the Finns, who lived in the southwest; tavasts who inhabited Central and Eastern Finland, Karelians - residents of the southeast, to Lake Ladoga. The tribes were often at enmity, even pushing the Sami - the indigenous inhabitants of Northern Europe, they did not have time to merge into one nationality.

Coastal regions of the B altic region before the 12th century

The first mention of Finland dates back to the 98th yearad. The ancient Roman historian Tacitus describes the inhabitants of this territory as primitive savages who do not know either weapons or dwellings, eating herbs, dressing in animal skins, sleeping on bare ground. The author distinguishes between the Finns themselves and the neighboring people with a similar way of life.

Finnish language

The vast region, which began to be called Finland only in the fifteenth century, at the dawn of our era did not constitute a cultural or state whole. The climate and nature were very harsh, new methods of production came from the Mediterranean very slowly, so that the area could only feed a few tens of thousands of inhabitants. At the same time, from the fifth to the ninth centuries, the population of these regions grew steadily. Along with the ubiquitous spread of agriculture and animal husbandry, the stratification of society intensified, and a class of leaders began to form.

Before active settlement and culture began in the eighth century, the settled population was concentrated mainly on the southwest coast and in the valley of the Kumo River, as well as on the banks of its lake system. The rest of present-day Finland was dominated by the nomadic Sami people, who were engaged in hunting and fishing. Further active settlement was facilitated by warming in Northern Europe and the spread of new farming methods. Residents of coastal areas began to settle to the northeast, and the southern shores of Lake Ladoga were settled by Slavic tribes.

About the year 500, North Germanic tribes penetrated the Aland Islands. The first trading posts andcolonial settlements began to be created by the Swedish Vikings in 800-1000. Since then, Finnish society has become associated with the Swedish element. True, the Finns then lived in the forests, and the Swedish population on the coast, so the assimilation of the language was difficult. After the end of the Viking Age, attempts to colonize Finnish lands by neighboring states begin.

Swedish rule in the history of the Finnish people

Swedish rule is a very long period of time in the history of Finland (1104-1809). The reasons for the Swedish expansion are considered to be the need for Sweden to take a strong position to contain Veliky Novgorod, which made attempts to gradually integrate these lands into its composition. Then Christianity became the dominant religion, later the locals adopted Lutheranism. The Swedes actively settled empty territories, and Swedish remained the state language of Finland at that time for a long time.

russia finland

In 1581, Finland became a Grand Duchy within the Kingdom of Sweden. Sweden reached the pinnacle of its power in the next century. For some time, Finland practically seceded, the local government had significant powers and independence. But the nobles oppressed the people, so there were several uprisings. Later, the Finnish nobility almost completely merged with the Swedish. Further, endless wars and civil strife awaited Finland as part of the Swedish kingdom.

The Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809-1917

The Friedrichsham Treaty ended the Finnish War1808-1809. During the hostilities, Russia occupied large areas of Finland and defeated the Swedes. Under the peace treaty, the occupied territories (Finland and the Åland Islands) passed into the possession of the Russian Empire. At the same time, the resettlement of locals to Sweden or back was allowed. As a result of the signing of the document, the Grand Duchy of Finland was formed, which became part of Russia.

Emperor Alexander the First preserved the "radical laws" for the Finns, and members of the Seimas swore an oath to him. Some of the laws of that era, interestingly, have survived to this day. It was on the basis of these acts that Finland was later able to legally declare its own independence.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the capital of the Principality was the city of Helsinki (the former capital of Finland - Turku). This was done to move the elite closer to Russian Petersburg. For the same reason, the university was moved to Helsinki from Turku. Alexander the First ordered to begin construction in the capital of Finland in the style of neoclassical St. Petersburg. At the same time, work was carried out to improve the infrastructure.

history of finland

Perhaps it was then that the local population for the first time in the history of Finland felt like a single people, with a common language, history and culture. There was a patriotic upsurge, an epic was published, which was recognized throughout the world as the national Finnish epic, patriotic songs were composed. True, in response to the bourgeois revolutions in the Old World, Nicholas introduced censorship and secret police, but Nicholas was more concerned about the Polish uprising, the Crimeanwar and so on, so I did not attach importance to the nationalist movement in Finland.

The coming to power and the reign of Alexander II Nikolayevich was marked by the rapid cultural and economic development of the region. The first line of the railway was built, there were own personnel in senior positions, a post office and a new army, a national currency was established - the Finnish mark, the metric system of measures was introduced. In 1863 the Finnish and Swedish languages ​​were equalized, and compulsory schooling was also introduced. This time was later called the Era of Liberal Reforms, and a memorial monument was erected in honor of this (and also the Russian Tsar) on Senate Square.

Later, both Alexander the Third and Nicholas II limited Finnish independence. Autonomy was practically eliminated, and in response, a passive campaign of resistance began. During the revolution of 1905, Finland joined the All-Russian strike, Nicholas II noted the decrees on limiting the autonomy of the region.

Prerequisites for the Declaration of Independence

In March 1917, after the events of the February Revolution, the emperor abdicated. A few days later, the Finnish government approved the constitution, and in July the parliament declared independence in internal affairs. The competence of the Provisional Government in foreign policy and the military sphere was limited. This law was rejected by the Russian government, and the Seim building was occupied by Russian troops.

The last Senate, subordinate to the Provisional Government of Russia, began its work in early August 1917. To the topThe October Revolution did not resolve the issue of Finland. At that time, the Finnish government actively sought to limit Bolshevik influence in the region. In December, the Senate signed the Finnish Declaration of Independence. Now this date is celebrated as Finland's Day and Flag Day. This is a national holiday. The first day of Finland was celebrated just in 1917.

Finnish independence

A couple of weeks later, the Council of People's Commissars, headed by Vladimir Lenin, also recognized the independence of the region. Later, the new state was recognized by France and Germany, the Scandinavian countries, the USA and Great Britain, but the memory of Lenin, as the first leader who recognized Finland, is still preserved. Several busts have been erected in the country, and there is also a museum named after Lenin.

Proclamation of Independence of Finland

Almost all over the country in 1917, spontaneous militias began to emerge, as the police were dissolved, there was no one else to protect public order. Detachments of the Red and White Guards were formed. In addition, Russian troops remained on the territory. The government took over the White Guard, and the government was given emergency powers. The Social Democrats were preparing to carry out a coup.

Civil War in January-May 1918

The Finnish war has become one of the many intra-national conflicts in military Europe. Opponents were the "Reds" (radical left) and "Whites" (bourgeois-democratic forces). The Reds were supported by Soviet Russia, the Whites were helped by Germany and Sweden (unofficially). During the war, the populationconstantly suffered from hunger, a catastrophic lack of food products, terror and summary executions. As a result, the Reds could not resist the excellent organization of the White troops, who captured the capital and city of Tampere. The last stronghold of the Reds fell in April 1918. The Republic of Finland of 1917-early 1918 collapsed along with it.

Formation of the country's statehood

As a result of the civil war, a majority was formed in the country's parliament, excluding representatives of leftist parties. Among the deputies, the ideas of reviving the monarchy were popular, and since many politicians had time to become disillusioned with the republic during the months of the war, they agreed on a monarchical form of device. At that time there were many monarchies in Europe, the world community allowed the possibility of restoration in Russia as well.

Finnish stamp

King of Finland was elected relative of the last German Emperor Wilhelm II. The Kingdom of Finland was created in August 1918. The king did not rule for long - a month later there was a revolution, and on November 27 a new government began to work. Its main goal was to obtain recognition of the country's independence from other Western European states.

The life of the common people at that time became very difficult, the economy was ruined, politicians lost the trust of the population. After several replacements and reforms, a republic was established in Finland and presidential elections were held.

The first Soviet-Finnish war of 1918-1920s

The shaky peace did not last long. Governmentdeclared war on Soviet Russia. Finnish troops crossed the border and invaded Karelia. The conflict officially ended in October 1920 with the signing of the Tartu Peace Treaty. The document assumed that the entire Pechenga volost, all the islands to the west of the border in the Barents Sea, the Ainovskie Islands and the island of Kiy, the volosts occupied by the Finns in Russia, went to Finland.

Military cooperation with the B altic countries and Poland

The Republic of Finland in the early thirties of the twentieth century concluded several agreements with the B altic states and Poland. The reason for the agreements was the need to coordinate actions and search for allies in the event of a war with the USSR. Preparations for the war were difficult, as the deputies, who were pacifistic, resisted.

The “Winter” Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940s

Before the start of World War II, the Finnish Democratic Republic remained neutral, against the background of the fact that relations with the Soviet Union were systematically deteriorating. In the autumn of 1939 Finnish artillery shelled the Soviet village of Mainila, and a few days later Soviet troops invaded Finland. During the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 (the causes and results of which are below), the country offered unexpectedly strong resistance. But still, when the Mannerheim line was broken through, the Finns were forced to retreat.

The causes of the military conflict are called territorial claims, the desire of Finland to return the territories lost earlier, unfriendly relations with the USSR (Russia-Finland did not establish diplomaticrelations after the recognition of the latter's independence). The consequences were the loss of the Karelian Isthmus and Western Karelia, part of Lapland, part of the islands of Sredny, Gogland and Rybachy, and the lease of the Hanko Peninsula. As a result of the conflict, almost forty thousand square kilometers of territories passed to the USSR.

Soviet-Finnish front of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1944

Another armed conflict with the Soviet Union is usually called either the Soviet-Finnish War, the Soviet-Finnish Front of the Second World War (in Soviet history), the Continuation War (in Finnish history). Finland agreed to cooperate with Nazi Germany, and on June 29 a joint offensive against the USSR began. At the same time, Germany provided Finland with guarantees for maintaining independence, and also promised to help return all previously lost territories.

finland day

Already by 1944, Finland, realizing the likely outcome of the war, began to look for ways to peace, and the successor to the president, who took up his duties in the same 1944, dramatically changed the entire foreign policy of the state.

Lapland war with Germany in 1944-1945

After the change in foreign policy, the withdrawal of German troops from Finland began, but they did not want to leave the nickel mining region. All this was complicated by the fact that at the same time it was necessary to demobilize a large part of the Finnish army. The last German soldiers left the country only in 1945. The damage caused to Finland by this conflict is estimated at 300 million US dollars.

Republic of Finland oncurrent stage of development

After the war, the situation of the country was doubtful. On the one hand, there was a threat that the Soviet Union would try to make the country a socialist, but all of Russia and Finland would establish friendly relations, and develop trade with Western countries, and maintain their own statehood.

In the post-war period, life in the Republic of Finland gradually improved. The economy developed rapidly, and the creation of education and he alth systems made the country prosperous. Finland has been a member of the European Union since 1995.

Modern Finland is a prosperous state in Northern Europe. The population and area of ​​Finland are now 5.5 million people and 338.4 thousand square kilometers, respectively. According to the form of government, it is a parliamentary-presidential republic. Since 2012, the President has been Sauli Niiniste. The country is rated by many funds and organizations as “the most stable” and “prosperous”. This is also the merit of Sauli Niiniste as the current political leader.

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