Every person knows very well what a lesson is. However, not everyone will be able to accurately formulate the definition of the concept. In scientific terms, a lesson is a variable form of organizing purposeful interaction, the task of which is to educate schoolchildren. And a good teacher will never start a lesson right away, without an introduction. Professionals know that an organizational moment is needed. He is very important. However, first things first.
Generally accepted model for starting a lesson
Not so long ago, literally before the mid-2000s, the organizational moment included only the announcement of the topic of the lesson, the subsequent presentation of the goals and checking the readiness of schoolchildren for the lesson. Now this model has been replaced by a more modern version. Since the introductory part of the lesson began to be perceived as a prerequisite for the formation and development of the motivational sphere of schoolchildren. Tasks and goals developed by the teacher beforelesson should be meaningful and benefit the children.
So, it all starts with a mutual greeting of the teacher and students, followed by a roll call. Then the teacher should check the pupils' readiness for the lesson - remind them of textbooks, notebooks, pens, ask them to get something else if necessary. Also, the teacher is obliged to inspect the classroom and his workplace. The curriculum, the state of the board, the presence of chalk and sponge, equipment for demonstrating visual material - everything must be in place.
After the test is done, you can start the lesson. The teacher formulates the topic, goals and objectives of the lesson, and then sets the initial motivation. This part is the most important, so it should be told separately.
This is what excites the mental activity of students and shows their readiness to perceive a new flow of information. The brighter and more informative the initial motivation is, the stronger it will affect the pupils. And for everyone without exception (even for the weak). That is why organization is so important. The lesson should start dynamically and clearly. In this way, it will be possible to discipline students and quickly put them into work, saving time.
In general, the initial motivation is needed in order to create a readiness for the perception of new material, to concentrate attention, to excite mental activity and to stimulate learning processes. Also, due to it, it is possible to turn the cognizable into personally meaningful. That's why it's so importantarouse interest among students so that each of them is carried away by the topic and wants to master it.
What to remember?
The organizational moment of the lesson, especially in elementary school, should be different every time. And even for a teacher with a fantasy, this causes some difficulties. After all, every time he has to re-interest the pupils.
A small memo with a short set of rules can help beginner teachers. The most important thing is that the teacher must from the very beginning demonstrate his trust in the students, win them over. He is also obliged to help children formulate goals and objectives, as well as clarify them if something is not clear. It is also necessary to remember that each student has an internal motivation for learning. And about the need to implement it. This is possible if the teacher takes an active part in group interaction, strives to establish sympathy between him and the students and demonstrates his openness.
With her, many teachers begin the organizational moment at the lesson in elementary school. The main goal is to cheer up children and create a positive atmosphere.
The teacher turns on relaxation music or birdsong, the sound of the sea, the rustle of trees. Then he opens the window for ventilation and asks everyone to take a comfortable position. And then everyone should close their eyes and take a few even deep breaths and exhalations. It is important that students feel relaxed. Their breathing will become even and calm, pleasantwarmth and smiles on their faces. This psychological "mood" the teacher must first voice.
Then the children "return" from heaven to earth, and they are offered a game. Without this element, the organizational moment at the lesson in elementary school is unlikely to be effective. Which game to choose is up to the teacher to decide. You could write the word "hello" on the board and invite the children to wish each other something good for each letter of the greeting. After that, the children will be charged with positive energy and will be ready to learn the material.
An organizational moment can be made especially interesting for children if it is held in a modern format. Many teachers resort to the use of video materials. They help set the tone for the lesson. In addition, this way you can present material for study, demonstrate its significance. The screen will definitely attract more views and attention than the usual whiteboard. And if the teacher is creative and imaginative, he will be able to do it even if he teaches a technical subject.
A good example is a physics lesson on the topic “Pressure”. The teacher does not even need to prepare a presentation. It is enough just to show a short video clip in which two tourists with backpacks walk through a snowdrift. One of them moves in boots, and the other on skis. After the students have watched the movie, they need to ask some questions. Which of the tourists on the snow is easier to move? Why do backpacks have wide shoulder straps? How to folddo they have things in them so as not to create a big load on the back? All these questions are on topic. They activate the attention of students and set them up for the lesson. In addition, such questions encourage cognitive activity, as they make you start thinking and reflecting.
Also, the organizational moment at school can be carried out, relying on promising-motivating motives. The teacher in the initial part of the lesson needs to explain to his pupils that without studying a specific section of the subject, it will not be possible to master the next one. It makes children think, gives them motivation. Few people want to then, because of their own lack of assembly, sit over textbooks. And why, if you can just concentrate and listen to the teacher?
Another task of the organizational moment in the lesson can be implemented using cognitive-motivating motives. They are very efficient. Because they arouse the inner interest of the student. It subsequently forms a motivational environment in the lesson, which then determines the behavior and actions of the child. He has a desire to do the task, delve into the topic, remember what the teacher says. Whether he will have such an interest depends on how good the teacher is in his field. After all, everyone knows that even the most interesting subject can become boring if the teacher just reads a lecture from a notebook.
They also need to be briefly mentioned, talking about what the organizational moment should be. Examplescan be very different. But, as practice shows, the most effective is the use of active methods. This is a set of ways, means and techniques that make children want to carry out cognitive activities.
These include brainstorming, support schemes, discussion, dialogue, creating problem situations and raising sharp questions, communicative attack, game moments. Many teachers use the advance method of organizing the moment. At the end of the lesson, they announce the next one, telling the students about the most interesting planned moments. In the next lesson with this class, the teacher will have fewer tasks - he will not need to help them focus.
Well, above it was told about the purpose of the organizational moment in the lesson. Now we can touch a little attention on the structure that the teacher must follow in order to achieve it.
You need to start with the initial introduction of the material, but only taking into account the laws of the process of cognition with the developed mental activity of students. After that, it is necessary to point out what they will have to remember and learn. Also, the teacher must definitely talk about effective memorization techniques that really help many students.
After that, you can start studying the material. First of all, the teacher provides the theoretical part. These are terms, definitions, theories, laws, formulas, rules. There should not be a lot of material - students will not be able to rememberall. It is necessary to give them only the most important things. Better it will be part of the topic, but students will master it to the fullest. And after that, you can proceed to the practical part, during which students will be able to apply the acquired knowledge and consolidate the acquired skills.
End to start
Well, the purpose of the organizational moment is very clear. Finally, I would like to say how important it is to observe the relationship between the previous lesson and the next. They must be whole. At the end of the lesson, the teacher with his pupils usually sums up the material covered, repeats the key points, and summarizes what has been said. And with this it is necessary to begin the next lesson, which takes place on another day. Question: What did we talk about in the last lesson? Where did you stop?" I manage to refresh the memory of the students and understand how attentive they were. By seeing the reaction of the students, the teacher will be able to understand whether the previous lesson was successful.