Didactic goal of the lesson: classification, characteristics, features of the conduct, lesson structure and tasks

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Didactic goal of the lesson: classification, characteristics, features of the conduct, lesson structure and tasks
Didactic goal of the lesson: classification, characteristics, features of the conduct, lesson structure and tasks
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To plan an interesting, informative lesson, the teacher needs to set clear goals. Moreover, they should be real for students of a particular class. Based on them, the material is selected, the most appropriate methods, means. Thus, the didactic goal of the lesson becomes the starting point for organizing the lesson and the result that should be obtained at the end.

Definition

In Ushakov's dictionary, the goal is understood as the limit or what a person strives for. Didactic goals and objectives of the lesson are set in the process of preliminary forecasting. This is the desired result, which is not only necessary, but also possible to achieve in the time allotted for one lesson. However, sometimes one goal can be set for several lessons. The main thing is that it be specific and verifiable.

Next, the main goal is divided into smaller onestasks. They are solved through the change of activities at different stages of the lesson. For example, at the beginning of a lesson, the teacher spends an organizational moment, setting up students for work. The next task may be to update the basic knowledge through an oral survey or exercises. The main thing is that the structure of the lesson is logical and aimed at achieving the planned result.

schoolchildren raise their hands

Classification of goals

Traditionally, in pedagogy, there was an idea of ​​the trinity of the pedagogical goal, in which educational, developmental and educational aspects are simultaneously present. So each lesson should:

  • to educate children, giving them a system of theoretical knowledge, as well as practical skills;
  • to develop the thinking abilities of schoolchildren, their oral and written speech, memory, imagination, self-organization skills;
  • contribute to the education of moral or aesthetic beliefs, feelings, volitional and socially significant qualities (responsibility, accuracy, creativity, discipline, etc.).

However, a different classification of pedagogical goals is currently proposed, as follows:

  • The subject-didactic goal of the lesson provides for the deep mastering of the content of a particular academic discipline by schoolchildren in accordance with program requirements.
  • The meta-subject goal is aimed at developing universal learning activities in children (the ability to work with information, express their opinion, engage in dialogue,think logically and creatively, independently plan activities, evaluate their effectiveness).
  • Personal goal forms motivation for learning, individual and civic qualities of schoolchildren, value-semantic attitudes.
children doing exercises

Types of lessons by didactic purpose

As we can see, at each lesson the teacher solves a whole range of tasks. One of the selected goals becomes the main one for him, while others contribute to its implementation. In traditional pedagogy, the leading place is given to the achievement of educational or subject results. Depending on them, a classification of lessons has been developed, which are divided into:

  1. Lesson of primary acquaintance with new educational material.
  2. A lesson to consolidate the learned information.
  3. A lesson in applying acquired knowledge and skills.
  4. A class in which material is organized and summarized.
  5. A lesson in checking and correcting acquired knowledge and skills.
  6. Combined activity.

Learning new information

The main didactic goal of the lesson of the first type is to master previously unfamiliar material. It can be a rule or a law, properties of an object or phenomenon, a new way of doing things.

teacher explains the material

The standard structure of such a lesson consists of the following steps:

  • Announcement of the topic of the lesson, motivation for active work.
  • Repetition of previously learned information relevant to the material being studied.
  • Introducing a new topic. At this stage, different methods can be used: teacher's story, work with a textbook, heuristic conversation, student reports, independent search activity in groups, etc.
  • Primary fixing. Children are offered tasks that are performed collectively.
  • Independent work. This stage is not mandatory, but allows the teacher to understand the extent to which students have learned the information.
  • Summing up, writing down homework to review what has been learned.

Reinforcement session

Let's continue to study the classification of lessons according to the didactic purpose. After getting acquainted with a new topic, knowledge needs to be consolidated, while forming practical skills. The most convenient to achieve this task is the following lesson structure:

  • Checking homework, during which children remember the studied material.
  • Announcement of the topic, creating positive motivation among students.
  • Reproduction of material during standard exercises.
  • Creating a problem that requires application of knowledge in a changed, unusual environment.
  • Summing up.
  • Announcement of homework.
children write

A lesson in the practical application of the studied material

The didactic purpose of this type of lesson will be to teach schoolchildren how to work independently, as well as to reproduce their acquired knowledge when solving problems of increased complexity. The lesson structure is built as follows:

  • Checking homework exercises.
  • Announcing the topic of the lesson, explaining its practical benefits, creating a positive attitude to work.
  • A conversation before an independent solution of the proposed tasks, during which the children comprehend their content and approximate sequence of actions.
  • Students individually or in groups perform tasks aimed at achieving the goal (answering a question, building a graph, filling out a table, performing calculations, conducting an experiment, etc.).
  • Schoolchildren together with the teacher summarize and systematize the results.
  • Summing up, presenting homework.

Summary lesson

So that the studied material does not remain a set of disparate facts for children, it is necessary to lead them to comprehend the studied patterns, identify cause-and-effect relationships between objects or phenomena. The didactic goal of generalization lessons, therefore, is the systematization of the studied knowledge, checking how conscious they are.

children answer the teacher's questions

The structure of the lesson is as follows:

  • Setting learning objectives, motivating students.
  • Reproducing the basic information on which the theory or pattern under study is based.
  • Analysis of individual events or phenomena, the result of which is a generalization of the concepts covered.
  • Deep mastering of the knowledge system through the explanation of new facts, performing atypical exercises.
  • Collective formulation of the mainideas or leading theories that underlie the phenomena studied.
  • Summing up.

Test session

Control lessons, as a rule, are held after studying a single topic or a whole section. Their goal is to assess the level of assimilation of the material by students and adjust the work of the teacher. The structure of such a lesson can vary significantly depending on the subject.

independent work

It is desirable that students be offered tasks of various levels of complexity:

  1. An exercise to understand the elementary relationships between the objects under study, reproduction of factual material (events, dates).
  2. Assignments for explaining the basic rules, concepts or laws on the topic, arguing your own opinion, confirming it with examples.
  3. Independent solution of standard tasks.
  4. Checking the ability to use existing knowledge in a non-standard situation.

Dictations, control sections, testing, written and oral surveys are used in such lessons. In high school, a test form is used when students must submit a certain number of papers during the year in order to get a good grade.

Combination Lesson

Most often, in one lesson, the teacher solves several didactic goals. The structure of the lesson in this case may differ in its variability.

children during the lesson

The traditional scheme of the lesson is the following:

  • Announcement of the theme of the lesson.
  • Checkexercises that students did at home. At the same time, students recall the material covered in the last lesson.
  • Working with new information.
  • Reinforcing it through practical exercises.
  • Summing up and writing homework diary.

The didactic goal of the lesson should be set consciously, taking into account the abilities of specific students and the capabilities of their teacher. It is very important to correctly estimate the volume of tasks that children will cope with in one lesson. Otherwise, the lesson will not be effective and all participants in the educational process will be disappointed.

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