School in America: internal rules, subjects, terms of study. Secondary education in the USA

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School in America: internal rules, subjects, terms of study. Secondary education in the USA
School in America: internal rules, subjects, terms of study. Secondary education in the USA
Anonim

Most of the inhabitants of our country know about the education system in America only from films and books. It is no secret to anyone now that many of the innovations in our educational system are being borrowed from the United States. In our article, we will try to figure out what a school is in America, what are its features and differences from our educational institutions.

Differences between American and Russian education

More recently, under Soviet rule, education in the Soviet Union was considered one of the best. Now more and more people compare our education system and the American one. There is a significant difference between them, it is impossible to say which one is better and which is worse. Each has its pros and cons.

The American education system is more democratic. If almost all schools in our country follow the same curriculum, then in the United States there is no single plan. Pupils attend only a few compulsory disciplines, and the restEveryone chooses subjects at his own discretion, taking into account personal preferences and the choice of a future profession. We can say that the school in America adheres to an individual approach to learning much more than the Russian one.

school in America

Another difference between American educational institutions is that in them such concepts as "class" or "classmates" have a completely different meaning. Because all the children studying in the same class can hardly be called a team. The American school still involves the creation of teams, but most often this happens in special classes, which, moreover, are chosen by the children themselves.

Compared to our schools, sports are the most popular in US institutions, there is practically no institution for children where there is not a well-equipped gym, swimming pool and stadium.

A school in America is not a single building, like in our country. More like a student campus with several buildings. On its territory, additional equipment is required:

  • Assembly halls for various events.
  • Gym.
  • Big library.
  • Dining room.
  • Park area.
  • Residences.

It has already been mentioned a little that each state in America can approve its own educational programs. But compulsory secondary education remains the same for all. True, it can begin either from 6 years old, or from seven. The start time of classes may also vary: in some schools they may beginat 7:30, while others prefer to seat the children at their desks at 8:00.

The academic year, unlike ours, is divided into only two semesters, not quarters. Evaluation does not provide for a five-point system, but often a 100-point criterion is used.

The education system in American schools

American education is quite diverse, so everyone can choose for themselves an individual path in mastering knowledge. Every country and every nation has its own value systems, traditions that are passed down from generation to generation. There are also installations that are laid in children's heads from childhood. For example, from birth, a Jewish baby is told by his parents that he is the smartest and he can do anything. Maybe that's why there are so many outstanding scientists and the latest discoveries in this country.

In American families, a child from childhood learns one truth: in life there is always room for choices that he can make. Not everyone can become famous physicists or chemists, but you can always find many other exciting activities for yourself. In the United States, a place in society and well-being do not depend on the type of activity or your profession, but on success in this area. Being a simple car mechanic is not at all shameful if you do your job at the highest level and a queue of customers is lining up for you.

The American education system is set up for this as well. Already within the walls of the school, the child can choose for himself those classes that he likes best. The only thing that remains is the requirement to consistently graduate from several types of schools,which will be discussed below.

There are no rigid groups or classes in schools, students are called students and have the right to choose courses that correspond to their inclinations and the aspirations in life that they have. If our schools have a common schedule for each class, then each student can have his own schedule.

American education system

Each course is worth a certain number of points, which is called a credit there. There is even a minimum loan that you need to collect in order to move to the next school or enter another educational institution. There are special classes for college preparation, but you must have "personal credit" to be eligible to attend them. Most children consciously choose the classes they attend and therefore their path to the future.

A school in America practices scholarships for children, which depend on the size of the "personal loan". It also happens when a student has such a high credit that it is enough to get two higher educations for free.

It can be said that students have two options: to achieve everything with their work and abilities, or to use their parents' money for further education.

Another interesting feature is the American school - the child is still studying within the walls of the school, and information about his achievements is transmitted to all higher educational institutions. There are no entrance exams to institutes and universities, each student writes test papers for a yearsubjects, and the results at the end of the year are sent not only to the educational part of the school, but also to colleges and universities. After graduation, each student can only consider invitations from various educational institutions to study or send requests to them himself, waiting for a response. So it turns out that you can achieve high results and enter a prestigious university not only for money, but also by putting the maximum of your work.

It doesn't matter how many schools there are in America, but in each of them the only decisive factor for entering a prestigious university is one's own great desire and aspiration. Of course, not everyone is given good mental abilities, but if you want to study at a university, the state with a great desire can give a student loan, which is paid after graduation.

Varieties of schools in America

There are many educational institutions in the USA, but all of them can be divided into the following types:

  1. Public schools.
  2. Boarding school.
  3. Private schools.
  4. Homeschools.

Public schools are divided by age: there is an elementary school, a middle school and a high school. It is necessary to clarify how children in America study in such schools. First of all, a distinctive feature is their strict differentiation into separate institutions. They are not only located in separate buildings, but can also be located geographically far from each other.

Boarding schools are located in large fenced areas with well-equipped buildings for classes, residences,gyms and everything you need to get a quality education. Such schools are often called "schools of life" and rightly so.

Secondary education in the US

To get a certificate of education, you must complete three levels of school:

  • Primary school.
  • Average.
  • Senior.

All of them have their own requirements and features. Programs and list of subjects can also vary greatly.

Primary education

Education in America begins with elementary school. It should be clarified that in order to get to school, there are no problems. Some students are brought by their parents, those who are already 16 can come by car themselves, and the rest are taken by school buses. If the child is in poor he alth or is disabled, the bus can drive directly to his house. They also take the kids home after class. All school buses are yellow, so it is impossible to confuse them with other public transport.

school buses

Most often the elementary school building is located in parks and squares, it has one floor and is quite cozy inside. One teacher is engaged with the class and conducts all subjects according to the curriculum. Kids, as a rule, have traditional activities: reading, writing, their native language and literature, fine arts, music, mathematics, geography, natural science, hygiene, work and, of course, physical education.

Classes for classes are completed taking into account the abilities of children. Before that, the kids are tested. But all tests are moreare aimed not at identifying the level of preparedness for school, but at revealing the natural inclinations of the child and his IQ.

After testing, students are divided into three classes: "A" - gifted children, "B" - normal, "C" - incompetent. With gifted children from elementary school, they work more intensively and orient them towards further higher education. The entire process of education in elementary school takes five years.

High school in America

After graduating from elementary school, a child with a certain "personal loan" moves on to secondary education. The question arises, how many classes does a high school in America have? As we managed to find out, training takes three years, respectively, students go to grades 6, 7 and 8.

Middle school, like elementary school, each district may have its own curriculum. The school week lasts 5 days, and the holidays are twice a year - winter and summer.

american school

Secondary school is usually located in a larger building, as it has many more students. Education also goes on a system of credits. In addition to the compulsory subjects, which include mathematics, English, literature, each child can choose, depending on their preferences, additional lessons. At the end of the year, exams are sure to follow, in order to move to the next class, you need to score a certain number of credits. In secondary school, career guidance is mandatory, which helps children make their choice in life.

High School

What types of schools exist in America, we have analyzed, it remains to find out what a high school is. It includes 4 years of study, from 9th to 12th grade. As a rule, such schools have their own specialization, therefore, from the 9th grade, thorough preparation for entering higher educational institutions begins. This type of school is quite important, because during the training you can not only accumulate enough knowledge for admission, but also get loans that will significantly save on your studies.

In high school, the program requires the study of English, mathematics, social and natural subjects. Given that the high school must adhere to profile education, there may be different directions in different institutions.

There are the following directions in schools:

  • Industrial.
  • Agricultural.
  • Commercial.
  • General.
  • Academic.
  • secondary education in the USA

For example, if a student studied in an academic profile, then he has the right to enter a higher educational institution. But this applies only to well-performing guys. If the results are not very good, then the student chooses a suitable practical course for himself.

Any professional profile gives students practical skills. Depending on the chosen direction, a schedule of classes is compiled.

Rules in American schools

School rules exist in any school, of course, in American they differ significantly from ours.Here are some of them:

  1. It is forbidden to walk in the corridors during the lessons.
  2. When going to the toilet, the student is given a pass card, which is noted by the teacher on duty in the toilet.
  3. If a child misses school, the same day the secretary calls and finds out the reason for the absence.
  4. You can skip only 18 lessons if the course is taught all year, if the course takes half a year, then only 9 skips are allowed.
  5. You can't leave the school until all the lessons are over, there are video cameras everywhere.
  6. The school is monitored by security guards, they walk in civilian uniforms, but have weapons.
  7. In American schools, it is forbidden to eat in the corridors and classrooms, you can do this only in the cafeteria or cafe.
  8. Food and drinks are not allowed.
  9. Drugs and alcohol are prohibited, as well as the carrying of weapons, although such a warning for our schools looks completely ridiculous. In our country, this is a matter of course.
  10. The manifestation of sexual inequality in any form is not allowed. Even a hand on a friend's shoulder can be considered sexual harassment.
  11. It is forbidden to play cards in class.
  12. School rules even contain such a clause as no cheating.
  13. No damaging school property.

Some rules concern school uniforms, some of them seem completely absurd to us:

  • You must not wear clothes that advertise alcohol or drugs.
  • Transparent clothing is also prohibited.
  • From under the form should notpeek underwear.
  • T-shirt straps should not be too thin.
  • Don't walk barefoot in school.
  • The shirt must be with a collar.
  • school rules
  • It is forbidden to wear high heels.
  • Sandals, trainers and sandals are not allowed.

You can buy a school uniform in a specialized store, where a card is issued for each student and a discount is provided on the purchase.

The American educator also adheres to a strict dress code, of course, it is not necessary to go in suits, but men do not wear jeans to classes, and female teachers wear skirts more often than trousers.

All rules for students are printed out and pasted into school diaries at the beginning of the school year.

Private Schools in America

All private schools in the US are paid. Not all families can afford to educate their children in such an institution, because the cost of a private school for all the years of education will cost on average, if translated into Russian money, from 1.5 to 2 million rubles. But it must be clarified that this amount includes not only tuition, but also accommodation in a boarding house on a full basis.

Many private schools are ready to provide financial assistance to their students, this applies to both well-performing children and low-income families.

Since promiscuity often walks in public schools, there are frequent cases of rape, pregnancy of young girls, for the safety of their children, parentsprefer to pay to be calm for the he alth and life of their children.

Private schools have some advantages over public schools:

  • There are about 15 people in the classes, which makes it possible for each student to give maximum attention.
  • Residing in a hostel provides constant communication with your peers, not only in the classroom, but also at home.
  • Private schools have a longer period of study, so the chances of getting into a university increase.

Private schools, for a number of reasons, are more prestigious, but among public schools you can also find those where you can get a good education.

Homeschooling in America

Recently in America, home schools are coming into fashion. Once upon a time, such learning appeared naturally in families in which parents had a good education to teach their children at home, as well as a decent income to purchase all the necessary textbooks and manuals.

types of schools in america

Now in many cities in America there are learning centers for children from home schools. Teachers in various subjects are attached to each center. They conduct lessons for both children and their parents. Usually these are orientation sessions where children receive a curriculum and some necessary materials.

After that, an individual schedule is drawn up for visiting teachers, in the classroom the student writes tests and receives a new task. Webinars and online lessons are being practiced.

Children who study at home schools also have their own holidays and sports, where they meet with the same as they are. That is, there is a team, only its members meet each other much less often.

It is believed that home schooling requires much less energy, so children are less tired and less prone to the bad influence of their peers. Children from such schools are usually friendly, affable, and have good manners.

Schools for Russians in America

A school in America for Russians also exists. As a rule, it is chosen by those parents who do not want their children to forget their native language. In such institutions, teaching is conducted in English, but there are subjects such as Russian language and literature.

Most often, Russian schools are opened at Orthodox parishes, then it turns out that they are not everyday, but Sunday. But in some American schools there are after-school groups where children are taught Russian. It is also a good opportunity not to forget your native language.

In various centers circles and sections are opened, which are conducted by Russian teachers and in Russian. For example, figure skating, dancing and drawing, gymnastics and others.

For the very young, there are kindergartens, only private ones, where they communicate with the kids in Russian. There can only be 8 people in a group, because a teacher who has received a license for such an activity can simultaneously educate so many children. Children are accepted from the age of two.

Thus, living in America, you cando not forget the Russian language and at the same time communicate fluently in English.

Summing up all that has been said, we can conclude: no matter what schools exist in America, you can choose at your own discretion. Most often, this issue is decided by parents if the child is still small, and at an older age, the choice of an educational institution is already made together with the children. You can also get a prestigious education for free if you have a great desire and make every effort.

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