The structure of secondary vocational education today plays a crucial role in the preparation of highly qualified workers.
The need for practitioners is increasing every day. At the same time, with the development of the economy and production, the requirements for their professionalism and skill level are regularly increased.
The shortage of blue-collar workers increases interest in specialists of secondary vocational education. Positions that were previously considered non-prestigious are now increasingly in demand in the labor market. The issue of training personnel in these areas is becoming relevant. In this regard, specialized educational institutions involved in the training of middle-level personnel (colleges) still occupy a strong place in the Russian education system.
State institutions of secondary vocational education currently provide training in 280 different speci alties. With the development and modification of production, this list is regularly growing and replenished.
Types of collaterals
Vocational secondary education can be implemented at two levels. Distinguish between primary and advancedlevels.
Today, there are two types of educational institutions in the Russian Federation that train specialists in the field of second-level vocational education:
- technical school - the main type of educational institution where students have the opportunity to receive a secondary vocational basic education;
- college - an institution of higher level, where teaching is conducted on in-depth programs (it can be a subordinate unit of a university or institute, or an independent structure).
Primary vocational education, in turn, can be obtained in lyceums and vocational schools (vocational schools). These schools have different educational backgrounds.
Professional lyceum differs from college in higher level of student preparation.
After graduating from an educational institution with in-depth teaching, the graduate is awarded the qualification "specialist", students of lyceums and schools - "entry-level specialist".
Entry level secondary vocational education
Secondary vocational institutions in the field of primary training include specialized lyceums and schools.
The number of institutions with basic education in our country is about 4 thousand today. They have over 1.5 million teens attending.
Citizens who have received a vocational primary education have the right to continue their educational career in higher-level colleges under reduced programs.
Also if neededstudents can get a certificate of general secondary education. To do this, you must pass the state exam, on the basis of which the corresponding document is issued.
Graduates who have received an entry-level secondary vocational education have the right to continue their educational career in technical schools, colleges, as well as in higher educational institutions.
Advanced secondary vocational education
Those who want to get an advanced secondary education should choose not a lyceum, not a vocational school, but a college or technical school for admission.
In Russia, there are more than 2.5 thousand secondary schools with in-depth study, which are attended by about 2.3 million students.
Secondary specialized educational institutions receive an increased level due to the introduction of additional programs into the educational standards:
- professional practice;
- in-depth study of individual subjects and disciplines;
- obtaining an additional speci alty in parallel with the main one.
Education in higher education institutions is as close as possible to university education. Students here have more classroom hours than in primary education institutions, take exams and tests, write term papers and theses.
For example, students who have chosen a construction college, along with graduates of a university of the same direction, must submit and defend qualifying graduation projects related to specialized topics. The only difference is in the underestimatedrequirements for college students. Therefore, secondary educational institutions of an advanced level can be considered the lowest level of higher professional education.
Often, colleges are a structural subdivision of the university and are under the authority of this educational institution. Students planning to continue their education in institutions of higher professional education should pay attention to this fact. Having a diploma from such a college, graduates have the right to receive a specialized education at the university under reduced programs. This is a great advantage, as it makes it possible to shorten the period of study at the university, as well as to combine work and study.
Persons who have received basic general or secondary general education can enter colleges. This item is one of the basic requirements.
Applicants of primary vocational education institutions are exempted from taking mandatory entrance exams. For enrollment, you must submit the following documents:
- original document on school education (grades 9 or 11);
- 4 pictures (3 x 4);
- medical certificate;
- copies of passport and birth certificate;
- application to the principal for admission.
In some cases, upon admission to certain speci alties of secondary vocational education, if necessary, an interview with the candidate is conducted at the discretion of the educational institution. The applicant may be asked to complete writtentests for professional suitability and for the level of knowledge in school subjects. Similar requirements may also be imposed if the number of those wishing to study in this speci alty exceeds the number of state-funded places. In such a situation, the competition is based on the average score of the certificate and the results of the tests passed.
Admission to institutions of secondary vocational education of an advanced level is carried out on a competitive basis on the basis of entrance examinations.
One of the main requirements for colleges is a license. Therefore, before submitting documents to both a government and a commercial institution, you should make sure that the institution has the appropriate document with the current validity period.
Students who need housing for the period of study are provided with a hostel.
Out of competition, the following categories of citizens are enrolled in colleges:
- orphans and children left without parental care;
- disabled children;
- persons of other categories whose preferential admission is provided by the state.
With the development of modern information technologies, the process of submitting documents to secondary vocational schools is being modified and simplified. Many institutions are actively using Internet technologies to receive applications. Application forms are posted on the official website of the educational institution.
This method is convenient for both the applicant and the members of the selection committee. In order to apply, you must fill out a form on the website of the educational institution. Participation decisionin the competition is accepted remotely. The applicant submits the original documents after receiving a positive decision. Until then, his personal presence is optional.
Forms and duration of training
Secondary vocational education can be obtained in the following forms of education:
- part-time (evening);
The duration of primary vocational education is two to three years on the basis of grade nine and one to two years after grade eleven. Terms directly depend on the educational institution and the chosen speci alty.
The duration of obtaining secondary advanced vocational education is also determined by the level of training of students. For those who entered after the ninth grade, it ranges from three to four years. Based on eleven classes - from two to three years.
Deadlines for submission of documents
Educational institutions have the right to set their own deadlines for the start of acceptance of documents. Usually, the commission starts working in June, after the end of the final exams (but no later than the 20th), and accepts applications until the end of August (but no later than the 26th).
It should be borne in mind that the deadlines for applying for full-time and part-time, budget and contract forms of study may vary.
As a rule, the standards of secondary vocational education consist of two parts.The first is a federal program approved by the Ministry of Education. This document may be updated every year. General standards and requirements adopted in relation to secondary vocational education are required to comply with all institutions of secondary vocational education.
The second is a program approved at the regional level. Therefore, people studying in the same type of educational institutions may study different subjects and have a different number of classroom hours.
Programs of advanced secondary vocational education allow for the acquisition of additional speci alties on a budgetary or paid basis.
After graduation, students must pass the state certification. After successful completion, graduates are awarded a qualification. In case of a negative result, the student receives a certificate of completion of a course of study in this institution, indicating the period and number of classroom hours.
Persons who have not passed the final certification have the right to pass it the next year.
Students receiving secondary vocational education have the right to study at an educational institution for free.
Institutional graduates who complete their entry-level diploma and choose to pursue their educational career at colleges or technical schools may also qualify for government funding.
Getting a second education in a secondary school of the same level is only paid.
In addition, colleges, technical schools, lyceums and vocational schools in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other Russian cities offer the opportunitycontract training on a commercial basis.
Students studying on a budget receive a scholarship in the prescribed manner.
Speci alties of secondary vocational education
For those who decide to get a humanitarian or technical education, the speci alties, the list of which is approved for educational institutions by the Ministry of Education, provide an opportunity to master a worthy profession.
Secondary vocational educational institutions provide training in the following industries:
- agriculture and fisheries;
- hotel and restaurant service;
- medicine and he althcare;
- fuel and energy sector;
- production of food, beverages and tobacco products;
- manufacture of textiles;
- manufacture of leather goods and shoes;
- pulp and paper;
- publishing and printing production, production of printed products;
- oil, gas and nuclear industry;
- chemical production;
- manufacture of electrical equipment and optical equipment;
- machine production;
- production of rubber and plastic products;
- transport production;
- furniture manufacturing;
- making musical instruments;
- manufacture of sporting goods;
- other production;
- hotel and restaurant service;
- trade (wholesale and retail);
- educational and teaching activities;
- medicine and he althcare;
- financial activities;
- social sciences;
- real estate;
- natural sciences;
- culture and art;
- economics and management;
- information security;
- land management and geodesy;
- geology and minerals;
- aviation and rocket and space technology;
- marine equipment;
- radio engineering;
- automation and control;
- computer science and engineering;
- timber processing;
- environmental protection and life safety.
Specialization of educational institutions is often associated with regional characteristics, the specifics of the economy and production in a particular region. In order to train qualified personnel, career guidance of educational institutions is carried out.
Vocational school, technical school or college - what to give preference to?
The choice of an educational institution directly depends on your plans.
If after graduating from an educational institution you want to become a university student, a college with training in this speci alty is most suitable (for example, for subsequent admission to a civil engineering university, you should choose a civil engineering college; in order to further master the profession of a doctor, a medical college and sonext).
You will get a highly qualified working speci alty at a specialized technical school.
In higher-level colleges, they also train middle-class intellectual workers - accountants, teachers of primary and secondary grades, auditors, as well as specialists in many other areas.
If you want to get a speci alty in a short time, the best choice would be the secondary vocational education of the primary level.