Preschool oligophrenopedagogy plays an important role in the development of children with serious mental he alth problems.
Stages of development
Studies conducted in the field of education and upbringing of preschool children with severe intellectual disabilities have identified three periods:
- Development of correctional pedagogy from 1930 to 1978 At this time, pedagogical experience was accumulated, the psychological, pedagogical and clinical features of the state of mentally retarded preschool children were studied, the legal framework, scientific and methodological literature were being prepared for the creation of special correctional preschool educational institutions.
- Modernization of the content of correctional and educational activities in preschool institutions for children with intellectual disabilities from 1978 to 1992
- Orientation towards early detection of intellectual disabilities in preschoolers, psychological and pedagogical correction of identified violations, involvement of parents in the learning process (1992 - today).
The formation of oligophrenopedagogy in preschool educational institutions
Let's analyze the periods of its formationmore.
Vygotsky's theory played a special role in the first one. In the thirties of the last century in Russia, the main patterns of the formation of the child's psyche were revealed. Studies conducted during that period showed that the formation of higher mental functions of a person occurs after birth. This process is influenced by the social environment, training and education. As a result of the data obtained, teachers were able to assess the relationship between social and biological factors in the development of a preschooler, and the foundations of oligophrenic pedagogy appeared.
Domestic theory of the development of cognition of preschoolers
Scientists have established the fact of the gradual formation of the cognition of preschoolers by revealing the possibilities inherent in it. The theory of L. S. Vygotsky allowed teachers to choose new methods of oligophrenic pedagogy for preschool age.
Soviet psychologists D. B. Elkonin, A. N. Leontyeva showed that education is not only a leading factor in the formation of intelligence, the development of mental processes, but also in the development of creative activity of preschoolers. The result of the long work of a group of teachers in close relationship with psychologists was the emergence in the second half of the last century of developmental education in preschool pedagogy.
The importance of developmental education for oligophrenopedagogy
This way of teaching mentally retarded preschoolers appeared in 1975. It was at this time that a special preschool institution was opened in Moscow, designed for kids withintellectual disabilities. In the course of the research, it was possible to establish that the correction of abnormal development is possible only with developing training, using the theory of sensitive periods. A child with developmental disabilities needs detailed and timely pedagogical intervention. The effectiveness of correctional and educational activities directly depends on when the work was started. Oligophrenopedagogy is the upbringing and development of such children. The sooner problems are identified, a program is developed to eliminate them, the more likely it is that the correction will have positive results.
Retarded Preschool Program
It was published in 1976. In addition to creating educational and teaching methods, special recommendations were developed for their implementation in preschool educational institutions for children with intellectual disabilities. The methodology noted that oligophrenopedagogy is a section of defectology that specializes in the problems of development and education of mentally retarded babies.
At the end of the 20th century, research in this area of pedagogy continued. Retraining in oligophrenopedagogy of educators and child psychologists was carried out. The result of the work of a group of psychologists and teachers of the preschool educational institution was the creation of a theory of an activity approach to the development of the personality of a preschooler. Researchers published several scientific collections, which noted that oligophrenopedagogy is not a sentence, but a reason forhard work of teachers. A special program developed by O. P. Gavrilushkin and N. D. Sokolov, designed for the education and upbringing of mentally retarded children of preschool age, appeared in the 80s of the last century.
It says that oligophrenopedagogy is an important area of pedagogical activity, involving an integrated approach to the development and education of children with intellectual disabilities. Emphasis was placed on creating optimal conditions for the formation of children's activities. Training programs are designed for the development of preschoolers from 3 to 8 years old. They involve the identification and correction of the personality of a child with impaired intelligence.
Attention is paid to an integrated approach to the activities of children with intellectual disabilities.
Specificity of children's oligophrenic pedagogy
So what is oligophrenopedagogy? The definition indicates that, first of all, we are talking about a system of actions aimed at overcoming mental disorders in preschool children, helping such children adapt to the social environment. In addition to the traditional role-playing games used in preschool educational institutions, special attention is paid to visual activities. Children with serious intellectual problems are involved by educators and psychologists in designing, they are offered classes in modeling and drawing. In the course of such activities, fine motor skills develop in preschoolers, their speech apparatus develops, and communicative communication skills are formed. Even with seriousdevelopmental disabilities, with the right approach of educators and psychologists, it is possible to form elementary mathematical concepts, as well as laying the foundations of behavior in society.
What is oligophrenopedagogy currently studying? The attention of teachers and psychologists is attracted by the search for new forms and methods of working with preschoolers, who are far behind their peers in intellectual development. Basically, special correctional preschool institutions act as a form of providing correctional support to preschoolers with problems in intellectual development. It is here that speech therapy is well developed. Oligophrenopedagogy functions according to special programs approved by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, in close relationship with educators, medical workers, and child psychologists.
Research in the Russian Federation on oligophrenopedagogy
Modern research in the field of correctional pedagogy is primarily focused on creating a special concept for the early detection of problems, providing timely psychological and pedagogical correction of identified deviations in the mental development of preschoolers. In order for the work of specialists to be effective, correctional pedagogy must develop in conjunction with the institution of family education.
The use of a family-social approach in the early diagnosis of intellectual disabilities in preschoolers implies the support of a defectologist. After identifyingproblems are solved the issue of further education of the baby. A special commission is being created, which includes not only medical workers, but also a defectologist, an educator, a speech therapist, and a child psychologist. If the diagnosis is confirmed by doctors, if serious mental deviations from the norm are detected, the preschooler is sent for further education and training in a specialized preschool institution.
Tasks of preschool oligophrenopedagogy
The main subject of preschool oligophrenopedagogy is the study of the theoretical parameters of teaching and educating mentally retarded children. It is at this age that the most rapid formation of properties and qualities that turn a biological being into a person takes place. At this stage of development, a certain foundation is created, which is necessary for the subsequent formation of special skills and abilities, the assimilation of various types of activities.
In addition to the qualities and properties of the psyche of children that determine the nature of behavior, there is a formation of attitudes towards the world around us, nature. If during this period it is not possible to fully correct the intellectual development of the baby, this will negatively affect his subsequent development.
Oligophrenopedagogy has recently attracted the attention of psychologists and teachers, since, unfortunately, there are more and more children with serious intellectual disabilities every year. In the state of many preschool institutions there is a psychologist, a teacher-speech therapist. Their task isidentifying problems with speech, memory, concentration of attention, etc. at the early stages of development. It depends on the professionalism of these employees whether deviations in the intellectual development of preschoolers are detected in a timely manner. The main problem is that many of the adverse factors associated with mental retardation are of a protracted nature.
FGOS of the second generation, introduced in preschool educational institutions, are aimed at early diagnosis of the creative abilities of kids. With a serious attitude of educators to the new federal educational standards, invented specifically for preschool state institutions, it is possible to quickly identify children with mental retardation in a group, provide them with all possible assistance, and involve professionals in working with such preschoolers: doctors, psychologists, speech therapists.