Russian captain Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin: biography, achievements and interesting facts

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Russian captain Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin: biography, achievements and interesting facts
Russian captain Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin: biography, achievements and interesting facts

Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin - one of the participants in the Decembrist uprising in St. Petersburg in 1825. He remained in history as the author of autobiographical notes that shed light on the worldview of society at that time. In this article, we will talk about the main facts of his biography.

Childhood and youth

Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin was born in the Smolensk province in 1793. At first he was brought up by his relatives, the Lykoshins. They met with Griboyedov, who was his second cousin. They developed a friendship.

From 1808 to 1811 he attended Merzlyaev's lectures on Russian literature, and then Kachenovsky at Moscow University.

Military service

In 1811, Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin joined the Semyonovsky regiment. He took part in the Patriotic War and foreign campaign, received the St. George Cross.

The trip to Paris had a strong influence on his worldview. At that moment, for the first time, he realized the shortcomings of the social structure within his country. Returning to Russia, the serfdom of the peopleseemed to him the only obstacle to the rapprochement of the classes.

Since 1815, a group of officers formed in the Semyonovsky regiment, which read foreign newspapers and discussed the current situation. Among them was Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin.

Union of Salvation

polar Star

In 1816, Yakushkin, together with the brothers Muravyov-Apostles and Prince Trubetskoy, founded the secret society "Union of Salvation". During interrogations, he admitted that the reason was the desire to change the situation, when everyone around cared only about their own personal gain.

In addition to serfdom, they opposed the cruel treatment of soldiers, extortion, military service. The purpose of the Union was to establish representative government in Russia, it was allowed to limit autocracy if the emperor refused to meet halfway.

Soon, service in the guard became unbearable for Yakushkin under the influence of everything he saw. He transferred to a regiment in the Chernihiv province when it became known about a probable war with the Turks. On the way, he stopped by his uncle in the Smolensk province, saying that he was going to free his peasants. He thought the officer was crazy.

In 1817 Yakushkin's chasseur regiment was transferred to Moscow. Here he received the charter of the Union of Salvation, drawn up by Pestel. When the idea arose to end the reign of Alexander by force, the hero of our article offered to sacrifice himself. The very next day, members of the Union of Salvation abandoned this idea, considering it irrational. Yakushkin leftsociety and submitted a letter of resignation, returning to it when it was already called the "Union of Welfare".

In the Welfare Alliance

Yakushkin's wife

Being a member of the "Union of Welfare", Yakushkin in 1820 drew up a project in which he described all the disasters in Russia. He was going to send it to the emperor. The future Decembrist proposed to start correcting the situation by convening the Zemstvo Duma. However, Grabbe dissuaded him from sending the project, as it could destroy the entire secret society.

In 1822 he marries Anastasia Sheremeteva, after which he stays for about a year in his mother-in-law's estate near Moscow. The retired captain listened to the advice of his comrades to be more careful, since the sovereign was already aware of the secret society.


Decembrist revolt

Shortly after the death of Alexander I, Yakushkin arrives in Moscow. He meets with members of the Northern Society, goes to meetings. Having learned about the intention of the Petersburg members not to swear allegiance to the new ruler, Yakushkin proposes to stir up the Moscow troops for an uprising. However, nothing came of it. As you know, the uprising took place only in St. Petersburg.

Decembrist Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin refused to swear allegiance to Nicholas I. He was arrested in Moscow on January 10, 1826.


Yakushkin's notes

During interrogation, he refused to name other members of the secret society, was amazed that the authorities knew about his intention to kill the emperor in 1817.

After the first interrogation withRussian captain Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin met Nicholas I. The emperor told him that he must confess everything if he did not want to destroy his family. In response, the hero of our article retorted that he had given his word not to extradite anyone. Nicholas lost his temper, ordering him to be chained. The captain was put in the Alekseevsky ravelin, they were practically not fed.

On February 13, he nevertheless sent a statement to the commission of inquiry, in which he announced that he was ready to tell everything that was required of him. Heavy chains, prison and separation from loved ones undermined his stamina. During interrogation, he named the names of those whom, as he believed, the authorities already knew about, as well as General Passek, who had died by that time, and Chaadaev, who had gone abroad. In April, the shackles were removed from him. Before the verdict, they allowed a visit with the mother-in-law, wife and children.


Yakushkin's house in exile

Telling a short biography of Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin, it is important to mention the verdict. He was found guilty of intending to kill the emperor, participating in a secret society. The court sentenced him to 20 years of hard labor, followed by deportation to a settlement. Later, the term of hard labor was reduced to 15 years.

Yakushkin was sent to Siberia only in November 1827. A visit with the family was allowed in Yaroslavl. His wife intended to follow him into exile, but she was forbidden to take her children with her. The Decembrist convinced her to stay.

At the end of the year, he reached Chita, where he met with 60 more associates. They were engaged in grinding bread or went to the watchman. In 1828, his wife managed to getpermission to go to Siberia with the whole family. But due to the illness of the child, the trip had to be postponed, and then the chief of the gendarmes, Benkendorf, began to oppose it in every possible way.

In 1830, Yakushkin was transferred to the Petrovsky Plant, where he compiled a geography textbook and studied botany. In 1835, by royal decree, he was released from hard labor, leaving him for an eternal settlement in the town of Yalutorovsk in the Tobolsk province.

In the brief biography of the Decembrist Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin, a dangerous disease, which was discovered in 1854, played a role. He was even allowed to go to the Trans-Baikal Territory for mineral waters. In Irkutsk his condition worsened and he stayed there for two years. He had scurvy ulcers on his legs, as well as hemorrhoids and rheumatism.

Monument to Yakushkin

By the Manifesto of 1856, Ivan Dmitrievich Yakushkin (1793 - 1857), like all other Decembrists, was released from exile without the right to live in the capital. He settled in the estate of his former colleague Tolstoy in the Tver district. The place was swampy and damp, which finally upset his he alth. After returning from Siberia, he mostly talked about the need to free the peasants.

In June 1857, the eldest son, without permission, brought his father to Moscow for treatment. The condition of the hero of our article was terrible. His stomach barely digested food, but the trip encouraged him.

The chief of the gendarmes allowed him to live in the Moscow province. On August 12, the Decembrist died at the age of 63. He was buried in Moscow at the Pyatnitsky cemetery. His memoirs were firstpublished in London in 1862.

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