What are the types of jobs?

Table of contents:

What are the types of jobs?
What are the types of jobs?
Anonim

Young boys and girls after graduation are faced with the difficult question of choosing a speci alty. When making this choice, they should not focus only on personal preferences, but also take into account other factors, such as abilities, knowledge of school material, the ability to communicate with people, perseverance, attentiveness, accuracy, and others.

The importance of work in human life

Work activity distinguishes man from animal. Labor arose as a necessity to maintain human existence, but at present its significance in human life is considered much more widely. In the process of labor activity, people communicate with each other and form social groups. In this case, labor performs a communicative function and helps a person satisfy his need for communication.

Each person can choose a profession that suits his inclinations and abilities. And if the profession is chosen successfully, a person receives great satisfaction from his activity. Labor in this case becomes a need, a basis for a person's self-expression and self-affirmation.

To helpa young person in choosing a profession, it is necessary to give him the most complete information about the types of activities.

Types of human professional activity according to E. A. Klimov

Academician Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Klimov compiled a classification of activities that can be used to facilitate the task of choosing a profession.

Man has mastered many types of work. All types of professional activity are distinguished by the energy expended (mental or physical) and its place of application (to nature, to another person, to technology, to signs or to an artistic image). Depending on this, E. A. Klimov identified 5 main types of work, within which there is a further division.

Human activities related to animate and inanimate nature

Work in nature

Man gets acquainted with the world of nature from childhood, and in the process of life his relationship with nature takes on different forms. He plows the land, cuts down the forest, builds dams. Studying the results of such human impact on biological communities and ecosystems, humanity has discovered that its activities can threaten the existence of living organisms. This is how a new science arose - ecology, which studies the influence of man on nature and gives recommendations on how not to harm our common home, how to make the Earth only become more beautiful.

All existing types of professions and jobs related to nature must take into account the basic principles of ecology. And for this, a person who chooses as his profession activities related to nature, plants, animals ormicroorganisms, must love nature, as well as be observant, patient, able to work in adverse climatic conditions and alone.

Activities that work with nature

Work on the ground

Such species include:

  • Study of nature (living and non-living): microbiologist, surveyor, biologist, geologist.
  • Plant care: agronomist, vegetable grower, farmer, forester, florist, gardener.
  • Animal care and treatment: livestock specialist, fish farmer, veterinarian, beekeeper.
  • Elimination of the adverse human impact on the environment: hydromeliorator, ecologist.

Human activity aimed at interacting with other people

A person who chooses such an activity must be sociable. In addition, he must have the following qualities: stability of the emotional state, the ability to establish contacts with people and understanding of human characters.

List of types of work that are aimed at other people

A kindergarten teacher

These include:

  • Education and training: teacher, kindergarten teacher, nanny, instructor, master of industrial training, lecturer.
  • Team management: director, foreman, coach, entertainer, wedding host.
  • Artistic team management: director, conductor.
  • Trade and service: salesman, bartender, waiter, stewardess, tour guide, manager, hairdresser.
  • Medicalservices: pediatrician, dentist, speech therapist, psychologist, nurse, surgeon.
  • Helping people: social worker.

Human activity aimed at interacting with mechanisms

The choice of this type of work implies that a person has certain needs in studying the devices of machines and mechanisms, as well as skills in handling them. To choose such professions, a broad knowledge of technical disciplines such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and drafting is required.

Professions related to the design of technology require from a specialist not only excellent knowledge of technical disciplines, but also a good spatial imagination, a desire to create something new, to create. And for the development of professions related to the management of equipment, in addition to technical knowledge, attentiveness, accuracy, punctuality, perseverance, diligence and other qualities are required.

Professions related to technology can be obtained in various educational institutions. Higher educational institutions of the country produce engineers and designers, colleges produce technicians, and vocational schools produce workers of various types of work.

Human activity aimed at interacting with mechanisms is the most extensive area of ​​all the considered areas of human activity. It can be divided into groups and characterize each group separately.

The job of a baker

List of works aimed at interaction with mechanisms

  • Design and design of devices: designer, inventor, engineer, scientist. per centuryhigh technology, these professions are in high demand. Inventors with their creative thought create devices that make people's work easier, and designers help bring these devices to life. But the design of technology itself also has several areas: aviation, marine, construction, medical equipment and others.
  • Professions in the industrial sector: turner, miller, locksmith, electric welder, installer, grinder, blacksmith, stamper, tinsmith.
  • Professions related to production support: equipment maintenance engineer, machine gunner, technologist. These specialists monitor the operation of the equipment, the quality of the tools used and the products manufactured, as well as control the technical process.
  • Car-related occupations: driver, racing driver, taxi driver, truck driver, car mechanic, auto electrician.
  • Road related occupations: paver operator, roller operator, road foreman, road worker.
  • Professions related to agriculture: machine operator, tractor driver, combine operator.
  • Gas-related professions: oil and gas exploratory driller, oil and gas production driller, technosphere safety. It is necessary to indicate what types of work involves technosphere safety. These are the following activities: identifying places with increased technogenic and anthropogenic impact, as well as creating conditions to reduce this impact. This type of activity is closely related to the knowledge of the principles of ecology.
  • Professions related to metal: metallurgist, steelmaker, rolling mill, foundry worker, welder.
  • Professions of light industry: seamstress, cutter, baker, confectioner, shoemaker, printer, perfumer.
  • Professions related to mountains and land: geologist, mining engineer, surveyor, miner, land registry specialist.
  • Building professions: bricklayer, tiler, plasterer, finisher, crane operator, carpenter.
  • The work of a steelmaker

Human activity aimed at interacting with signs (numbers, letters)

From childhood, people get acquainted with letters and numbers, and in the future, the study of various signs accompanies them all their lives. These are drawings in educational institutions, formulas, texts in different languages, road signs and symbols that are used in IT technologies.

This type of activity requires attentiveness, accuracy, perseverance, the ability to think logically and abstractly.

List of works related to signs

These include:

  • Professions related to documentation: secretary-typist, editor, notary, bibliographer, proofreader, stenographer.
  • Professions related to numbers: economist, computer operator, accountant, cashier, statistician.
  • Professions related to conventional signs and diagrams: draftsman, topographer, translator, cartographer.
  • Professions associated with IT symbols: programmer, webmaster.

Human activity aimed at interacting with artistic images

This activity assumes that a specialist has a certain talent or ability to create an artistic image or copy it. Such abilities include: good imagination and thinking in images, highly developed artistic taste and aesthetic sense. But these abilities are not enough. The following qualities are essential for this activity: perseverance, purposefulness, willpower and diligence. This activity also includes such a concept of the type of work as the study of artistic images and their influence on the aesthetics of the surrounding space.

Teaching any kind of activity with artistic images has its own characteristics. It is organized in such a way that skill is passed directly from teacher to student in workshops or classes.

List of works related to artistic images

The work of a fashion designer

Meaning the following:

  • Professions related to the creation of artistic images: writer, poet, artist, composer, fashion designer.
  • Professions related to copying or reproduction of artistic images: actor, cutter, pianist, jeweler, florist.
  • Professions related to the study of artistic images: film critic, literary critic.

Professions of the 21st century

There are now many new types of work that were not even known in the 20th century. Here are some of them:

  • Media planner - a specialist involved in the organization's advertising campaign, in particular, the choice of meansmedia and distribution of the advertising budget.
  • A life coach is a specialist who teaches his clients the formation of the qualities necessary for personal growth.
  • A merchandiser is a specialist who promotes products.
  • PR-manager - a specialist who creates the image of the organization.

New professions that have emerged with the advent of the Internet

Programmer's job

Among them are:

  • Copywriter - a person who writes texts to order.
  • Web designer - a specialist who develops website design.
  • Internet coach - a specialist who advises clients on his topics online.
  • Content manager - a person who fills websites.
  • SEO-specialist - a person who promotes websites.
  • Favorite work

It is very important for a young man or girl to make such a choice of profession when his abilities, personality traits and preferences correspond to the chosen type of work. Then this activity will bring satisfaction to a person, become the meaning of life and will contribute to his professional growth.

Popular topic