Game method. Features of its use in physical education. Game and competitive methods in elementary school

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Game method. Features of its use in physical education. Game and competitive methods in elementary school
Game method. Features of its use in physical education. Game and competitive methods in elementary school

Games and competitions are among those social phenomena, the significance of which is far from being limited to the sphere of physical education and physical development. They arose a long time ago and developed simultaneously with social culture. With the help of games and competitions, a variety of needs for self-awareness, development - both physical and spiritual, interpersonal contacts, entertainment and recreation are satisfied. But, among other things, they also have a pedagogical function, that is, they serve as a wonderful and important means of education.

Game method in physical education

Features of the method called the game method are as follows:

1. The players organize their own activities in accordance with a conditional or figurative plot (game plan, idea). In such a plot, it is implied that the goal of the game will be achieved under the conditions of constant changes in the game situation, which are of a random nature. Scenarios, as a rule, are borrowed from reality, which is directlysurrounds the participants.

In the game, certain applied actions and relationships observed in life find their figurative reflection. Participants imitate labor, household chores, hunting and much more. The plot of the game can be deliberately created with a focus on the needs of physical education and exist in the form of a conditional scheme for the actions of players among themselves. This is the nature of all modern sports games.

2. Another characteristic feature is the variety of ways in which the goal can be achieved. That is, winning (achieving a goal), as a rule, is not associated with a single course of action. His paths are always different and diverse, which, by definition, is allowed by the game rules. Only the most general line of behavior is limited in games without taking into account specific actions.

3. Game methods of teaching children are complex activities. They contain a lot of different movements - from running and jumping to fighting and fighting. Sometimes this method is inherent in predetermined strictly defined actions of the same type. An example is "fortlek" (or "running game"), which combines a classic game approach with continuous physical exercise. In practice, this looks like alternating running of varying intensity and walking. Such competitions take place in the form of rivalry on the ground between the participants.

game method

Other Benefits

Those involved in the game method are given wide freedom. The independence of their actions is rarely limited.On the contrary, the requirements for the level of initiative, dexterity and resourcefulness in this case are quite high. Each of the players has a scope for creative solutions to the tasks set, and the constant change of scenery and the emergence of more and more new data on the plot push to solve quickly and very actively, which contributes to the maximum mobilization of both physical and mental abilities.

The game simulates interpersonal and intergroup relations, the nature of which is quite tense. Most of these actions are characterized by high emotionality. Such competitions contribute to the modeling and reproduction of active relationships between individual players and entire groups, aimed at both cooperation (which refers to one team) and rivalry (we are talking about relations between opponents in pairs and teams). The game is always a field of clash of directly opposite interests, a place for the emergence and resolution of conflicts inherent in it. Thanks to this, throughout its entire length, the emotional intensity exists at a very high level and helps the personalities of the participants with all their ethical qualities to clearly manifest themselves.

The game method has the ability to program certain actions with varying degrees of probability, while the load can be regulated.

Competitive method

Its main feature is the ability to compare forces on the basis of organized rivalry with a single goal - the struggle for the highest possible level of achievement, ideally for superiority.

Like games, competitions(competition) is one of the most widely known phenomena of social life. Its most important significance is that in this way activity is organized and stimulated in a huge number of vital spheres. This is the production process (work competition), and art (the system of festivals and art competitions), and, of course, sports with its olympiads and championships. Each of the forms carries a strictly defined specific meaning.

game plan

What is inherent in him

A characteristic feature of the competitive method is unification. What it is? This term means bringing the subject of the competition to a certain uniformity, as well as some regulation of the means of struggle for achieving superiority and the methods by which the result is evaluated. This is quite understandable. After all, if there is no universally recognized standard for comparing results, comparison of strengths and achievements is impossible.

In a number of cases, the unification procedure affects only a certain narrow circle of competitors (class team, groups, etc.), but nevertheless, the principles characteristic of any form of using the competitive method are present in any sports.

This method is based on the rational organization of the competition process itself. At the same time, an athlete is inherent in testing his own strength not only in confrontation with rivals, but also in an effort to overcome himself and improve his own performance or previous result.

Let's talk about gaming activities

Game method inelementary school can be considered as the most productive direction that exists among all modern methods of physical education. In any form, using it is always attractive to the child. Successful and competent variation of many of its existing forms allows solving the problems of physical education as completely and comprehensively as possible.

Children, especially those in this age group, are most actively interested in everything that finds expression in movement. At the same time, the process of precise isolation and regulation of individual forms of motor activity is still beyond their strength. Toddlers tend to get tired quickly, but at the same time they recover quickly. Fatigue develops most strongly in children during the performance of monotonous exercises. The most attractive look those of them, the mastery of which is possible in the shortest possible time.

This feature is just one of the features of the game method. The tasks are solved in a relatively short time and imply the full mobilization of physical forces.

game method of exercise

How to captivate kids

Children with their powers of observation always manifest figurative object thinking. Based on this, their activities should be organized accordingly, adhering to a conditional or figurative plot, due to which the exercises are performed in a relaxed atmosphere and do not allow interest in the classes to fade away.

After the initial learning of movements, there comes a moment of the need for their compleximprovement. It is here, as never before, that all the prerequisites for improving physical qualities are created. The game method of training provides the most complete conditions in which it is possible to develop the necessary traits - endurance, strength, agility and speed.

When conducting a lesson or training with a game method, exercises of a competitive nature are also used in training. Most often, this type of them affects the preparation and auxiliary elements of movements, where one way or another there are options for rivalry.

Auxiliary games can be simple, complex, transitional or team. As you know, all the behavior of a child is spontaneous and, by and large, exists precisely in the form of a game. In this case, the complex of auxiliary actions serves as its method, the purpose of which is to give order to children's play and push them to achieve certain pedagogical and developmental tasks.

At the same time, the need to constantly maintain freedom of movement and a joyful relaxed atmosphere should not be overlooked.

physical education and physical development

What gives the game

Methods of the game can be conditionally classified as imitative, playful and classical. Their techniques do not have to be associated with a generally accepted sports game such as volleyball or football. You can work them out using absolutely any physical exercise as a base.

Thus, the main point of using the game method with all its inherent features is not so much selectiveinfluence on specific physical qualities or training in initial movements, how much improvement of the entire complex of movements in a somewhat complicated framework.

Mainly we are talking about the development of speed, dexterity, independence, ability to orientate, initiative. A real teacher is able to turn it into an excellent tool for fostering camaraderie and collectivism, teaching discipline and other important personality traits.

Game methods at school, options for using a variety of sports equipment, various forms of outdoor games allow you to influence the physical qualities of players deeply and comprehensively. The result of such classes is an increase in interest in physical education and sports. Children receive an incentive to master the technique of certain rather complex exercises and complexes, strive to overcome difficulties and learn to solve the tasks.

game method in elementary school

Competition as a form of interaction

The use of the competitive method in the physical education classes of children can take the form of both detailed and the most basic. Competitions in the performance of individual elements of exercises lead to the stimulation of interest and physical activity. We are talking about a detailed form when classes are organized in the form of official competitions or passing control standards.

The very state of rivalry during competitions, as well as the conditions and atmosphere during their conduct, contribute to the creation of a special physiological and emotional background that enhancesmain impact. We are talking about the procedure for officially determining the winner, the ritual of rewarding for achievements, recognizing their social significance, competition and screening out weak rivals in the case of multi-stage competitions. A complex combination of all such factors allows the maximum manifestation of all the physical capabilities of the body.

As a rule, in comparison with similar loads of a non-competitive nature, in competitive conditions, much more significant functional shifts are observed. The more significant in personal or social terms a particular competition, the higher the psychological tension. Factors of constant confrontation, clash of interests, struggle and rivalry are present here by definition. In the conditions of team competition, relations of mutual assistance and the responsibility of individual players to the team are formed and strengthened.

About little athletes

Not only school physical education classes involve the use of a competitive method. It is also used in the preparation of high-level athletes. In practice, methods in this matter may be different:

1. With the help of the competitive method, preparatory exercises can be performed with a focus on increased load parameters. That is, training consists in a competition for the maximum possible number of repetitions of exercises and elements of general preparation.

game method of training

2. Competitions can be organized that involve the performance of episodic tasks that do not require speci alto prepare, but at the same time it is required to mobilize psychologically quite strongly. An example is a competition in the speed of mastering a new unusual movement or unusual combinations of elements on the go.

How else can you use the competitive method

It is possible to compete in the main event in a partially modified form (for example, running a distance similar to the main one, or throwing a heavy projectile).

You can focus on the quality side of the exercises with a decrease in the level of rivalry.

Why is the competitive method so important for the formation of sports qualities and character traits? The bottom line is that it is based on the natural human desire to win. Attitudes to improve one's own results and physical parameters in competitions mobilize and involve all types of interpersonal relationships that take place in sports. The participant is tasked with working to the limit of his own abilities and at the same time mastering the ability to manage himself (sometimes under rather difficult conditions).

What does it give

Thus, a whole range of pedagogical tasks can be solved using the competitive method. This also applies to the education of the qualities of a moral-volitional and physical order, the improvement of skills, abilities and abilities, their rational use in difficult conditions. Compared with other methods, it puts forward the maximum requirements for the physical capabilities of the human body, so that they receive optimal development.

ThenAt the same time, one should not forget about the potential danger of the formation of not only positive character traits. The environment of constant rivalry can sometimes lead to an increase in such negative qualities as vanity, selfishness and excessive ambition. That is why it is so important to combine the competitive method with competent and highly qualified pedagogical guidance. Only if this condition is met, one can not worry about the worthy moral education of the younger generation.

game method in physical education

What can be recommended in practice

Both game and competitive methods lead to an effective increase in the level of training and the development of physical qualities. Applying them, try not to mechanically transfer the many game models given in various collections and manuals into your own practice of working with schoolchildren. Any of the forms should be modified and adapted to a specific lesson, depending on the tasks set for it.

In physical education lessons for younger students, it is advisable to include the following forms related to the game method in the game plan:

2. Comic tasks.

3. Outdoor games.

4. Organization of classes according to the chosen subject.

5. Use of simulators and game equipment.

One of these forms can be circuit training, where different types of simulators serve as key points.

Game method - example exercises

Power and speed qualities are well brought up with the help of outdoor games andexercises related to jumping, relay, using the ball, etc. Such games as "Pass faster", "Shield Throw", "Best Jumper", "Relay Race", "Quantitative Passing", etc. are widely known.

Flexibility is brought up in the games "Keep your balance", "Rolls under the bridge", "Wave", "Relay race together", "Race with gymnastic sticks", "Legs on the run", "Agile, flexible", etc. p.

The level of stamina is increased with the help of the following outdoor games: tag, relay races with a return, rolling the ball at speed, "Take a free place", "Hunters", "Swallows". A description of all these and many similar exercises and forms of conducting game classes can be found both in special methodological literature and on the Internet.

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