In the last task of the Unified State Examination in the Russian language, the student is required to read the text and find the existing problem. There are three of them in the task, sometimes more. Problems with their definition occur infrequently. However, this process should be considered in detail, since it is important not only to find some kind of problem and write an essay on it, but also to correctly argue it, based on the reader's and life experience. Also, do not forget that the problem must be defined correctly, otherwise even the best essay will not be counted.
How to find text problems
The exam in the Russian language and the difficulties of passing it are known to everyone. In the exam, the most important and most evaluated is the last task with writing an essay. The maximum points for its implementation are 24, or more than 40 if translated into totals. However, not everyone can achieve it to the maximum. Difficulties can arise with spelling, punctuation, tautology and many other details that can be removedpoints.
However, the assignment will not be graded at all if the student does not find the problem or indicates it incorrectly. To avoid problems with this, first of all, you should understand the meaning of the text. Given that it is quite voluminous, the problems are evenly distributed over all its parts. However, it is easiest to single out the main one, which can be traced from beginning to end. Understanding what this problem is is very simple, since it is inherent in the meaning of the text. At the same time, its individual parts may contain hints of other problems close to the main one.
As mentioned earlier, first you need to understand the meaning of the text. After understanding it, you can begin to formulate the problem. In any essay, for the correct expression of the problem, it is necessary to generalize the essence of the text. For example, if it refers to the extermination of a certain type of animal or plant by man, then the main problem will be the unreasonable interference of man in the natural world. This will not be directly written in the artistic text, but you can read this thought "between the lines".
All literary texts used in such tasks often contain special cases or situations, from which a general conclusion of meaning is then made. The resulting essay must also correspond to the given volume, at least 150 words. The desired number is two hundred or more words. However, one should not be too zealous and paint the text on ten sheets, because it will be taken into accountjust two arguments and a couple of examples. Excessive quoting is also undesirable.
Problems in literary texts
This type of examples is the most difficult to work with, because it requires an analysis of the described action, characters, their characters, and so on. This is where most of the problems arise. To deal with them and facilitate the process of analysis, divide the text into three parts. This division will be conditional.
In the first part, which may consist of an introduction and plot, you can find the main problem of the text. If it is not traced so clearly, then you should move on to the second part with the main plot. It also contains hints of a common problem. However, there will be another topic for writing. And then you can move on to the analysis of the third and last part. It can often be confusing, as the thoughts expressed in the finale can lead to reflections on a side issue.
Problems in journalistic texts
This quest option is not often found. However, it is easy to work with it, since the problem can be expressed in one of the sentences, and it does not need to be formulated independently. It will be enough for the student to write it out, and then work with the data received.
What happens if the text problem is not correctly expressed?
In this case, the essay will simply not be counted, even if all points are scored for all other assessment items. This situation is the most frustrating for the student, as even a perfectly written essay will not be graded.
You can try to avoid this situation by trying to look for the topic not in individual sentences (as mentioned earlier, since the final part can easily lead to erroneous conclusions), but in general. Thus, the beginnings of the main theme are easily traced at the beginning, middle and end of the text.
What to do if multiple problems are found?
This option is best because the student has the opportunity to choose what to write about. First of all, you should decide which topic is the main one. After you need to figure out which of them will be the easiest to argue. Based on these two details, you can decide on an idea and write a good essay with it.
How to write an essay
Despite the fact that such a task involves the expression of one's thoughts, one cannot do without templates. Starting from the ninth grade, which also requires writing an essay, the student memorizes a certain template, according to which all further writing of any essay is carried out. The advantage of this is that there is no need to invent an introduction, an end, and other small details. They are repeated over and over. The student only needs to insert the titles of the works and the names of the authors used in a particular case.
Such standard constructions, or clichés, might look like this:
- Intro. In the cited text (author's name) a problem (formulation of the problem) is raised. The named problem is really important in the modern world (orsomething similar, expressed in your own words).
- Then come some examples from the text. Usually, the number of the sentence is written first (all of them are numbered), then the text itself comes in brackets, then we write an explanation of how this relates to the problem raised. Two such examples should be given (the exact meaning is indicated in the wording of the task for the essay).
- After the student proceeds to argue his position. There must be at least two of these arguments. One or both must be based on the reader's experience. As a second example, you can use historical data or even films (with the director and year of shooting). The argument can be expressed in a brief retelling of the plot and how it relates to the problem of the text.
- The conclusion is also taken from the cliché. The purpose of this part is to summarize the essay.
What to look out for
Special attention should be paid to the ways in which the problem is formulated:
- On my own (in my own words). This option can also be divided into two ways: simple and complex. In the first one, the problem can be expressed in one sentence (the author raises the problem of faith, etc.). This option is simple, so it is rare. Essay texts do not always make it so easy to find a problem. In such cases, a complex variant can be used with the expression of the problem in the form of a question: “Can one person influence the story? The author invites us to think about this. Sometimes this formulation is easier than the first one.
- Quote. Some texts are copyrightedproblem formulation. In this case, it is enough to use a quote.
- Sentences from the text. Sometimes certain sentences contain the essence of the problem being raised or even express it. In this case, it is enough to give their numbers from the text.
Book Arguments for Essay
As mentioned earlier, books, films, historical facts (life experience) can be used as arguments. Of all of them, a book example is mandatory, since one of the main goals of the essay is to test the student's reading experience and the ability to use it as arguments. As literature, you can use any works of domestic and foreign authors. Among the exceptions are folk tales (due to the lack of authors). A feature of this argument is that the verifier may not always know the product used in the example. Some students take advantage of this by inventing their own titles for books by obscure authors or by changing the plot of the story to make it suitable for argumentation.
This may seem convenient, but this trick should not be abused, because if the verifier knows the works of the author or even read them, then the trick will be easily discovered, and the argument may not be counted.
Which works are better to use when arguing? The student should write about books that are familiar to him. At the same time, one should go beyond the boundaries of classical school literature. Even modern science fiction books can do a good job.service when writing a work, because they may well contain a good argument. Foreign books as arguments can be very useful, but translation problems should be taken into account, as they can sometimes lead to an incorrect conclusion about the content.
Other argument options
As the second argument, you can use life experience or a historical case. This is especially true for those who are well aware of historical figures and their special merits. You can also think about the present time and famous personalities. Examples from the life of a famous person can be a useful argument. Biographical films will come to help the student. However, their titles should not be given unless the examinee knows the exact author and year of issue.
You don't have to memorize the entire story to use this argument. The twentieth and twenty-first centuries are often sufficient. At the same time, special attention should be paid to world wars and individuals who have accomplished some feat. This may well be enough. And given that the wording of such an argument includes words about life experience, it is quite possible to use a story from your life that is relevant to the problem being described.
Sometimes some people wonder if movies and series can be used as arguments. Yes, this option is possible. However, to use it, you need to know exactly the year of release and the director. And if there are no problems with the latter, then remembering the former can be very problematic. Butif no other option comes to mind, then the films will be very useful.
Let's consider problems from a scientific text. This type of text is used very rarely. However, as a training to learn how to formulate a problem, they are quite suitable. A feature of these texts is the absence of excessive "water" and beautiful turns. The whole purpose is expressed clearly and distinctly with the appropriate terminology. This greatly simplifies the task of searching and can be useful for those who are just learning to identify the problem of the text.
Problems from lyrics
If we move away from the topic of the Unified State Examination in Russian, then the lyrics of the song and the problems raised in it may be another reason why you need to learn how to calculate the main questions. Songs in this case are not as popular an option, as they often have not so high content requirements and can be, in fact, meaningless. For example, if you pay special attention to the analysis, you can even find problems in the text of the song of the Pharaoh or another artist. Foreign rock singers are especially relevant in this, because, in addition to strong semantic content in the text, they may have a good video sequence, thanks to which it is easy to understand the underlying meaning.
Songs and composition arguments
Previously, the obligatory use of the reader's experience in arguing an essay was mentioned. It is far from superfluous to resort to poems and songs by various artists in order to strengthen the argument and be more confident that your opinion will be counted. Today, many people have doubts aboutthe relevance of one or another book argument in the text, as well as its correct interpretation. In the case of songs and poems, one can resort to quoting, thanks to which the whole explanation is greatly simplified.
The last task of the exam requires you to formulate the problem of the text. This is a very important stage, as it helps to determine the student's reading experience and his ability to argue his position. The problem of text and composition are also related, since it is not enough just to name the topic found. You must be able to use it to compose a full-fledged essay in which it will be fully disclosed. The task is not something special, since the problems of the text and the Russian language are closely related. It is enough to recall any classical work. All of them have at least one problem. The larger any creation, the more problems it contains. This is relevant not only for domestic authors, but also for foreign ones. The essence of writing any book lies in compiling a story that can be based on one problem or include several at once throughout the story.