Calculation in translation: types, methods of translation and examples

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Calculation in translation: types, methods of translation and examples
Calculation in translation: types, methods of translation and examples

The word "tracing paper" has several meanings in Russian. This article considers the linguistic meaning of the word "tracing paper" as a linguistic copy in another language, as a semantic (i.e. semantic) borrowing from a foreign language by means of a literal translation in parts of a word or verbal phrase-phraseological unit.

tracing paper translated from one language to another

Kalki in language

Tracing paper (French calque) in linguistics, linguistics and translation studies is a word or expression modeled on the corresponding words and expressions of a foreign language by accurately reproducing (copying) their meaning by means of the native language. The appearance of cripples is usually associated with a sharp increase in the number of direct borrowings of foreign words and manifests itself as a reaction to this phenomenon.

The tracing paper cannot be translated in a single word. The order of words in the source language must also be observed in the borrowing language.

Considered classic: Tracing - English translationthe language of the word skyscraper (literally, "sky + scraper") and Russian skyscraper.

It is customary to say that when tracing a word, the internal (linguistic term) is used, and not its visible form (shell).

Calque in translation is especially often used for terms (special words in one field of knowledge). For example, German calorifer (literally, "heat + bear") and Russian calorifer.

But words were traced not only by word composition. There is also a "two-stage" tracing. It can be clearly explained by the example of the phrase nominative case:

a) In Greek, it is onomastike ptosis from onoma - “name” + pipto - “I fall”.

b) In Latin, it is nominativus casus from nomen - “name” + cado - “I fall”.

c) Russian language: nominative case - from the words name and fall.

Calculation as one of the ways to translate phraseological units

translated meaning

There are many ways to translate phraseological units (or stable combinations of words) into other languages.

The first is to replace it with a phraseological analogue or equivalent that would fully correspond in meaning to the original phraseological unit and would be based on the same well-known artistic image. Examples of such a translation are such phrases as Achilles' heel, Ariadne's thread, pouring crocodile tears, all cats are gray at night and the like.

The second method is the selection of a phraseological analogue that matches in meaning, but is based on a different image. An example would beEnglish not for love or money (literally, neither for love, nor for money) is translated into Russian as “for nothing in the world”, “for any gingerbread.”

The third way is a descriptive translation, which is possible if the borrowing language has neither an equivalent nor an analogue, and the method of calque in translation is simply impossible. English when the cat is away, the mice will play (literally, when the cat leaves, the mice play) can be translated as "when the owner is not there, the servants beat the thumbs" or "when there is no boss, the employees do what they want", or in another way, depending on the context where the expression comes from.

The fourth way is contextual substitution, when a Russian phraseological unit is used in translation, which does not coincide in meaning with English, but in this particular text conveys its meaning. The English I am a poor hand at advice literally means "I am too poor to advise", and translates as "I am not a master at giving advice."

Calculation as the fifth way of translating phraseological units

Kalki in English

Calculation and descriptive translation are one of the ways to translate phraseological units. Phraseological tracing is a literal (one-root) translation of each of the words in a sentence. Examples: a cat may look at a King is translated as “even a cat is allowed to look at the king”, and the expression a friend in need is a friend indeed, as “a friend in need is a true friend.”

Calculation techniques in translation:

  • the word "insect" is a tracing paper from Latin (in "on" + sectum "insect", consisting of parts);
  • the word "library" - tracing paper from Greek (biblion "book" + theke - storage);
  • the word "madness" is a tracing paper from Greek (a - "without" + phronis - "mind, mind"),
  • the expression "struggle for existence" is a tracing paper from the English struggle for life.
  • the expression "time is money" - tracing paper from English ("time" time, is - "is", money - "money"),

The name of the city of Pyatigorsk is a tracing-paper from Turkic, which can be judged by the name of Beshtau mountain located near the city (from 5 - "besh" + mountain "tau").

Existing types and examples of cripples. Derivative tracing papers

term in translation

All tracing papers can be divided into derivational, semantic, phraseological (were discussed above) and semi-tracing papers. Each type of calque in translation has its own characteristics when transferring from a certain language, which must be taken into account in order to avoid mistakes.

Derivational tracing papers are words obtained by morphemic (single-root in meaning) translation of a word into another language:

  • the word "semiconductor" - tracing paper from English (semi "semi" + conductor - "conductor");
  • the term "electromagnetic induction", which became Russian since the 19th century, is a tracing paper from English (electro-magnetic inductor).

Semantic calques: examples, errors in literal translation

Kalki translated from Latin

Semantic calques are words that have received completely new meanings under the influence of words from a foreign language. Sothe Russian word "refined" with the filing of the French raffiné began to mean "sophisticated, refined." There are times when tracing papers lead to errors. This is especially true for terms: each of its constituent words is literally translated instead of the translation as a whole:

  • X-rays are X-rays, not x-rays.
  • Arctic fox (White fox, Polar fox, Snow fox) is all Arctic fox and nothing else.
  • Black ice - black ice, not incomprehensible black ice, here black means bad.
  • The city of winds is not only the "city of winds", but also the nickname of the city of Chicago in conversation and literature.

Semi-calca, its features and examples

Kalki in phraseological units

Semi-tracing is the tracing of only part of compound words. In the word humanity, the Latin root human-us is combined with the Russian suffix "-ost".

In the English-Russian dictionaries of the beginning of the 20th century there is a tracing-translation of the word television - far-sightedness, but the word television has taken root - half-tracing, where the body is a simple borrowing, and the part "vision" is a tracing-translation.

The difference between tracing and transliteration

Transliteration (literally: transmission by letters) is a method of translation when the letters of one script are transmitted through the letters of another. An example of transliteration is W. Scott's novel "Ivanhoe" or Ivangoe, which in the 19th century was called "Ivangoe" in Russia (this is how its name is spelled in English).

This is an example of how usually transliteration and tracing can be considered rivals in translation. Experts recommenduse tracing paper for translating terms, especially technical ones, and transliteration for translating proper names (names of people, rivers, cities, etc.). Then Isaac Newton and Isaac Asimov would have the same name, not different ones.

Experienced translators recommend distinguishing between tracing paper and morphological transmission, or transliteration. With the help of endings formed by changing the word taken in Russian, the word is transformed into a new one. Latin intotonatio can be translated in two ways: tracing paper - the word setting (from in + tone), or morphologically - the word intonation (foreign prefix and root "intonation" + Russian ending "-iya"). Two different translations gave two different meanings for the same word.

For examples of tracing in translation, you can take the English expressions drain brain and brain storm. Tracing paper in Russian will be the expressions “brain drain” (in the sense of: loss of the intellectual elite) and “brain storm” (in the sense of: the excitation of sudden fruitful ideas), and the transliteration will be “drain brain” and “brain storm”. Both forms are very expressive and sound beautiful, so today they are used equally.

Mistakes when translating with cripples

The tracing paper is called false if the semantic structure of a word from another language is misinterpreted in the borrowing. An example is the translation of the Latin name of the aquatic plant aqualegia - aquilegia (from aqua - "water" + legia - "commonwe alth"). It was translated into Russian as "eagle" from the Latin aquila - "eagle".

For a correct translation, it is necessary not only to master the vocabulary of two languages, butvery subtly feel and understand their structure, logic, morphology.

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