The night sky amazes with countless stars. It is especially attractive that all of them are located each in a certain place, as if someone specially placed them so as to draw patterns in the sky. Since ancient times, observers have tried to explain the nature of the origin of constellations, galaxies, individual stars, to give beautiful names to the planets. In ancient times, the constellations and planets were given the names of mythical heroes, animals, various characters from legends and legends.
Types of stars and planets
A star is a celestial body that radiates a lot of light and heat. Most often it consists of helium and hydrogen. Celestial bodies are in a state of equilibrium due to their own gravity and the internal pressure of the body itself.
Depending on the life cycle and structure, the following types of stars are distinguished:
- Brown dwarf. This includes all objects that have a small mass and low temperature.
- White dwarf. All stars at the end of their life path belong to this type. At this point, the star contracts, then cools down.and goes out.
- Red giant.
- New star.
- Blue variables.
- Ultra X-ray stars. They release massive amounts of radiation.
Depending on the spectrum, stars are blue, red, yellow, white, orange and other colors.
There is a letter classification for every planet.
- Class A or geothermal planets. This group includes all young celestial bodies on which violent volcanism occurs. If the planet has an atmosphere, then it is liquefied and very thin.
- Class B. These are also young planets, but more massive than A.
- Class C. These planets are often covered in ice.
- Class D. This includes asteroids and dwarf planets.
- Class E. These are young and small planets.
- Class F. Celestial bodies with volcanic activity and an all-metal core.
- Class M. These include all terrestrial planets, including the Earth.
- Class O or ocean planets.
- Class P - Ice etc.
Each species includes hundreds and thousands of different stars and planets, and each celestial body has its own name. Although scientists have not been able to count all the galaxies and stars in the universe, even those billions that have already been discovered speak of the boundlessness and diversity of the cosmic world.
Names of constellations and stars
From Earth, you can see several thousand different stars, and each of themhas its own name. Many names have been given since ancient times.
The very first name was given to the Sun - the brightest and largest star. Although by space standards it is not the largest and not the brightest. So what are the most beautiful star names out there? The most beautiful stars with sonorous names are:
- Sirius, or Alpha Canis Major.
- Vega, or Alpha Lyra.
- Toliman, or Alpha Centauri.
- Canopus, or Alpha Carina.
- Arcturus, or Alpha Bootes.
These names were given by people in different periods. So, beautiful names of stars and constellations, given in the pre-antique and Greek period, have survived to this day. In the writings of Ptolemy there is a description of some of the brightest stars. In his writings, it is said that Sirius is a star that is located in the constellation Canis Major. Sirius can be seen at the mouth of the constellation. On the hind legs of Canis Minor is a bright star called Procyon. Antares can be seen in the middle of the constellation Scorpio. On Lyra's shell is Vega or Alpha Lyra. There is a star with an unusual name - Goat or Capella, located in the constellation Auriga.
Arabs used to name the stars based on the location of the body in the constellation. Because of this, many asterisks have names or parts of names that mean the body, tail, neck, shoulder, etc. For example: Ras is the Alpha of Hercules, that is, the head, and Menkib is the shoulder. Moreover, stars in different constellations were called with a similar name: Perseus, Orion, Centaurus, Pegasus, etc.
In the Renaissance, an atlas of the starry sky appeared. It presentedold and new objects. Its compiler was Bayer, who suggested adding letters of the Greek alphabet to the names of stars. So, the brightest star is Alpha, a little dimmer is Beta, etc.
Among all the existing names of celestial bodies, it is difficult to choose the most beautiful name for a star. After all, each of them is beautiful in its own way.
The most beautiful names of stars and constellations were given in ancient times, and many of them have survived to this day. So, the ancient Greeks came up with the idea to give the name to the Bears. Beautiful legends are associated with them. One of them says that one king had a daughter of unusual beauty, with whom Zeus fell in love. Hera, the wife of God, was very jealous and decided to teach the princess a lesson by turning her into a bear. One day, the son of Callisto returned home and saw a bear, he almost killed her - Zeus intervened. He took the princess to heaven, turning her into the Big Dipper, and her son into the Little Dipper, who must always protect her mother. In this constellation there is the star Arcturus, which means "guardian of the bear." Ursa Minor and Ursa Major are non-setting constellations that are always visible in the night sky.
Among the most beautiful names of stars and galaxies is the constellation Orion. He was the son of Poseidon, the god of the seas and oceans. Orion was famous for his skill as a hunter, and there was no animal that he could not defeat. For this boasting, Hera, the wife of Zeus, sent a scorpion to Orion. He died from his bite, and Zeus took him to heaven, placing him so that he could always get away from his enemy. From-This is why the constellations Orion and Scorpio never meet in the night sky.
History of the names of the bodies of the solar system
Today, scientists use modern equipment to track celestial bodies. But once, in ancient times, the discoverers of the planets could not see as far as modern astronomers. At that time they gave beautiful names to the planets, and now they are called by the name of the telescope that discovered the "novelty".
Since ancient times, people have been observing different celestial bodies, inventing names for them, trying to describe them. One of the planets that came to the attention of ancient scientists is Mercury. The planet got its beautiful name in ancient times. Even then, scientists knew that this planet revolves around the Sun at great speed - in just 88 days, a complete revolution is made. Because of this, he was named after the swift-footed god - Mercury.
Among the beautiful names of the planets, Venus is also distinguished. This is the second planet of the solar system, which was named after the goddess of love - Venus. The object is considered the brightest after the Moon and the Sun and the only one among all celestial bodies, which was named after a female god.
She has been wearing this name since 1400, and no one knows who exactly gave the planet its name. By the way, the Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has nothing to do with mythology.
Among the beautiful names of planets and stars, Mars stands out. This is the seventh largest planet of ourssystems with a red surface. Even small children know about this planet these days.
Jupiter and Saturn
Jupiter is named after the god of thunder, while Saturn gets its name from its slowness. Initially, it was called Kronos, but after that it was renamed, picking up an analogue - Satur. This is the god of agriculture. As a result, this planet was called by this name.
For several centuries, scientists have explored only the planets of our solar system. Outside of our universe, other planets were first seen only in 1994. Since then, a large number of very different planets have been discovered and registered, and many of them are more like the fantasy of screenwriters. Among all the known objects, exoplanets, that is, those that are similar to the Earth, are of the greatest interest. Theoretically, they could be life.
The most beautiful names of planets and stars were given in ancient times, and it's hard to argue with that. Although, some of the "finds" have unofficial unusual nicknames. So, among them it is worth highlighting the planet Osiris - this is a gas body that contains oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, these substances gradually evaporate from the surface of a celestial body. Such an event led to the emergence of a new category of bodies - chthonic planets.
Among the most beautiful planet names in the universe, Epsilon Eridani stands out. It is located in the constellation Eridanus. The exoplanet rotates in an elongated orbit around its star. She has two asteroid belts, due toit is somewhat similar to our Saturn. From us, Epsilon is located at a distance of 10.5 light years. A year on it lasts 2500 Earth days.
Among the beautiful names of the planets of the Universe, Tatooine or HD188753 Ab. It is located in the constellation Cygnus, which consists of three objects: yellow, red and orange dwarfs. Presumably, Tatooine is a hot gas giant that flies around the main star in 3.5 days.
Tres is distinguished among the unusual planets. It is almost the same size as Jupiter. She has a low density. The beauty of the planet is that due to the strongest heating, there is a loss of the atmosphere. This phenomenon causes the trailing tail effect of an asteroid.
The most beautiful name on the planet - Methuselah, sounds like some kind of demonic name. It revolves around two objects at once - a white dwarf and a pulsar. In six earth months, Methuselah makes a complete revolution.
Not so long ago, scientists discovered planets similar to the Earth. One of them is Gliese. She has almost the same orbit, she herself revolves around her luminary in a zone where the emergence of life is not excluded. And who knows, maybe she has it on her, but we don't know yet.
Among all the objects, the most beautiful name of the planet, as well as the most unusual structure of Cancer-e or the Diamond planet. She didn't get her nickname by chance. According to scientists, Cancer-e is eight times heavier than the Earth. Its main element is carbon, therefore, most of the object consists of crystalline diamonds. Because of this feature, the planet is considered the most expensive in the world.Universe. It is estimated that only 0.18% of this object could fully pay off all the world's debts.
Considering the most beautiful names of stars in the universe, it is worth mentioning galaxies, nebulae and other space objects. So, among the most unusual, but attractive names and objects themselves, there are:
- Sunflower Galaxy. This is the most beautiful system known to man. Her sleeves are made up of blue and white giant stars.
- Carina Nebula. This object is represented by dust and gases that have spread over more than 300 light years. It is about 8,000 light-years away from us.
- Vesturlund is a cluster of stars.
- Hourglass. This nebula is terrifying: the photo taken by the telescope looks more like a huge eye in a red glow. The object got its name because of the unusual location of the gas cloud, which, under the influence of stellar winds, is narrow in the central part, and wide towards the edges. Although the Hourglass picture says otherwise - looking at it, it seems that a giant eye is looking at Earth and other worlds directly from the depths of Space.
- Witch's broom. It is located at a distance of 2100 light years from Earth. This nebula is generally referred to as the Veil, but because of its thin and elongated shape, it is often referred to as the Witch's Broom.
- Whirlpool. It looks very beautiful in telescope pictures, but it has many secrets - it is characterized by a huge cluster of black holes.
- The Ring Nebula. Such an unusual namereceived an object formed after the explosion of a star similar to our Sun. The ring is the hot layers of gas and the remnants of the atmosphere. By the way, in the pictures, the Ring looks like a cosmic eye, although it is not as sinister as the Hourglass.
- Milky Way.
- Cat's eye. This nebula consists of eleven rings that appeared before the formation of the nebula. The object has an irregular internal structure, which is the result of a fast-moving stellar wind that appears to have torn through the shell of the bubble from both ends.
- Omega Centauri. The globular cluster Omega Centauri contains about 100,000 stars. This is a unique system: red dots are red giants, and yellow dots are stars similar to the Sun. After the outer layer of hydrogen gas is ejected, objects turn bright blue. All these shades are clearly visible in the photographs of telescopes.
- Pillars of Creation in the Eagle Nebula.
- Stefan's Quintet are five galaxies that are constantly fighting among themselves, stretching each other, distorting shapes, tearing sleeves.
- Butterfly. That is an informal, but accurate enough description of the name of the nebula, which is the remnants of a dying star. The wings of the "butterfly" are wide open for two light years. The gases ejected during the explosion glow brightly, creating an unusual effect of a butterfly hovering in space.
Modern technologies have made it possible to look into the distant depths of the Cosmos, to see a variety of objects, to give them names. One of the dramatic objects is War and Peace. This is unusu althe nebula, due to the high density of gas, forms a bubble around a bright cluster of stars, and then ultraviolet radiation heats up the gas and pushes it out, straight into space. This beautiful sight looks as if in the universe, this is the place where stars and gas accumulations are fighting for a place in open space.