Children are taught to work with text from grade 1. It is very important that students understand what they read, be able to navigate the structure of the material, highlight the main thoughts. For this purpose, they are invited to draw up an outline of the text. How to do this correctly, we will find out in this article.
The plan is a consistent reflection of all the key points of the text in an extremely concise formulation. Based on it, you can retell the work without distorting its content. But not all students know how to plan a text.
Let's consider the algorithm that is better to follow when completing the task:
- Read the text, trying to understand its meaning.
- Break it into semantic parts. It can be chapters or paragraphs. In each, highlight the main idea that needs to be formulated in one sentence.
- Create short titles.
- Check if you missed important points or thoughts, if the logic alties.
- Write the revised plan in your notebook.
It is difficult for younger students to see the main thing in the text. In this case, you can hand them a simple pencil and offer to draw sketchy comics that reflect the meaning of what they read. Pictures are arranged in order. Let the child decide which of them can be removed so that the comic remains understandable. Thus, the main thoughts will be highlighted, it remains only to come up with captions for the pictograms.
We figured out how to plan a text. Now let's talk about headers. All plans can be divided into:
- Question questions. For each highlighted part, you need to ask a question ("Who blinded Kolobok?").
- Thesis. The main idea of the semantic part is expressed in the form of a short sentence ("Grandma sculpts Kolobok").
- Denominations. When formulating the thesis, nouns and adjectives are used ("Moulding Kolobok").
- Support schemes. The student chooses from the text words or phrases that, in his opinion, carry the greatest semantic load (1. The old man with the old woman; 2. Cooked Kolobok; 3. Took it and rolled; 4. Hare; 5. Wolf; 6. Bear 7. Fox).
- Combined. Paragraphs are worded in several ways.
Division by complexity
Thinking about how to plan the text, remember that it can be both simple and detailed (complex). It all depends on how deep the reader wants to delve into the content.works.
In drawing up a simple plan, the text is divided into main parts, for which headings are then invented. It might look like this:
- Masha got lost.
- Caught by a bear.
- The bear is carrying a box with a girl.
- Dogs chase away bear.
In a complex plan, the main parts are subdivided into smaller ones. Accordingly, the paragraphs are also divided into subparagraphs, so that the structure of the text is reflected more fully. This is how the complex plan of the same fairy tale looks like:
- In the forest for mushrooms: a) Masha leaves with her friends. b) The girl got lost.
- Bear's hut: a) A house in a thicket. b) Masha works for a bear.
- Escape plan: a) The bear agrees to take the gifts to the village. b) Masha bakes pies. c) The girl is hiding in a box.
- The bear goes to the village: a) Masha doesn't let the bear eat pies; b) the house of grandparents; c) The bear runs away from the dogs; d) Joyful meeting.
Plan work with younger students
Primary school students, due to their age, find it difficult to distinguish the main thoughts in the text. The wording of the headlines also causes a lot of problems for them. Therefore, the formation of the necessary skills is carried out gradually. The plan of the text in the Russian language (for example, before writing the presentation) is first given in finished form. Children learn to correlate headings and parts of a work. You can cut a sheet with a short story printed on it into paragraphs and ask the student to collect it. So the child will learn to better navigate inthe structure of the work.
In the future, other methods of working with the plan of the text are used. The following tasks are systematically included in the summary of lessons on the Russian language, reading and the world around us:
- guess the work according to the finished plan;
- arrange the pictures for the fairy tale in the correct order, exclude the extra ones;
- compare different types of plans based on the same text;
- find errors or inaccuracies in the finished plan;
- edit headings, find synonyms for them.
According to the requirements of the school curriculum, children must learn to plan the text in the second grade. This skill will be useful to them throughout their school and student life. Thanks to him, the children develop logic, and they also master the skills of working with information.