The problem of understanding the essence of professional duty is the subject of study by representatives of various fields of scientific knowledge. But most of all it worries philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, educators. Let's try to understand the concept and role of professional duty, arguments confirming its social significance.
Features of terminology
It is hardly possible to derive a single interpretation of the concept of "professional duty". Representatives of different fields of activity have their own vision of its significance. However, some general features can be identified. Let us turn to the dictionary of S.I. Ozhegov. In it, the concept of "duty" is equated with the term "duty". The word is defined as a certain set of actions assigned to the subject and obligatory for completion.
In the framework of ethics, duty involves the transformation of the requirements of morality into a personal task of the individual. It is formed taking into account his status and the conditions in which he currently resides.
In philosophical literature, the emphasis is on the social nature of duty, its subjective and objective features are identified, their relationship is determined, the presence of motivating, regulatory, evaluative functions, the mechanisms for transforming external requirements into personal (internal) beliefs of the individual, attitude, motive are characterized, the need to perform certain actions.
In psychology, the concept is considered in the context of consciousness as an integral psychological structure inherent in a particular person.
In pedagogy, the concepts of professional duty and responsibility are identified with individual qualities. They are seen as readiness to carry out pedagogical activities.
As you can see from the above examples, "professional duty" is used in scientific literature in different meanings. At the same time, as the analysis of the theoretical material shows, in any case, we are talking about its real, real embodiment in the actions, behavior of people.
Professional duty of a teacher
Relatively recently, reforms of the domestic education system have been carried out. As a result, new goals and tasks were set for teachers. They actualized the problem of professional duty and professional responsibility.
Today, many questions have accumulated: what is the new education system, how does it function in the professional activities of a teacher, how is it formed, due to which the teacher becomes able to fulfill his duty, etc.e.
According to many experts, conviction, professional responsibility and duty are among the labor qualities, not personal ones. The fact is that the latter are long-term characteristics that are manifested in the actions of a person who is in different life situations. This or that quality can characterize an individual to a lesser or greater extent. If we talk about personal characteristics, then they correlate with the limits of their manifestation in different individuals.
A teacher's professional duty and responsibility are, after all, the attitudes that determine his attitude to his work activity. They can be considered as a set of motives, methods, forms of labor behavior. It is through him that the attitude of a person to his profession is realized.
Professionally significant qualities
In general, the concept of "significance" combines the external and internal attitude to the subject. In itself, it presupposes a dialectic of the objective and the subjective. In this concept, the main thing in the content of the regulation and motivation of the teacher's behavior is singled out and concretized. Personal qualities involved in the process of carrying out pedagogical activities have a significant impact on the effectiveness of work in such key parameters as quality, reliability, productivity.
It must be said that domestic scientists have repeatedly raised the issue of the influence of professionally significant personality characteristics on the efficiency of performing professional duty, the arguments justifying the existence of thisdependencies.
In different periods of the development of the educational system, the approach to determining the characteristics of a teacher, ensuring the fulfillment of his tasks and goals, has changed. Among the key professionally significant qualities were noted:
- social skills;
- active attitude to educational activities;
- demanding to oneself;
- emotional resilience;
- value orientations, etc.
Foreign scientists in the course of numerous studies in the course of building a personal model of a teacher identified criteria on the basis of which various kinds of qualities were selected, which, in turn, served as the basis for determining the effectiveness and success of a teacher. An analysis of the results made it possible to formulate very interesting conclusions. There was some overlap in the definition of personality traits by different researchers. However, there was no indication of a sense of moral and professional duty in the compiled lists.
The specifics of a teacher's work
Research of issues related to the implementation of professional duty shows that it depends not only on the regulatory requirements established in the standards (FSES), qualification characteristics, job descriptions. Of no small importance is such a personal quality of a teacher as a motivational and value attitude towards his profession.
The job of a teacher differs from others in that itthe key goal is to create conditions for the formation and improvement of the personality of other people, to manage the processes of their versatile development with the help of pedagogical means. Understanding the significance of this work is ultimately expressed in the pedagogical orientation of a person's personal qualities.
It should be said separately.
One of the key requirements of the teaching profession is the clarity of not only professional, but also social position. It is with their help that a teacher can express himself as a subject of educational activity.
The position of a teacher is formed by a combination of intellectual, emotional-evaluative, volitional attitudes to the environment, pedagogical reality and his work activity. They act as sources of teacher activity. It is determined, on the one hand, by the requirements, opportunities and expectations presented and provided by society. On the other hand, the teacher's position is determined by his personal, internal sources: motives, goals, value orientations, ideals, worldview, type of activity and civic behavior.
The social position of a teacher largely determines his attitude to his work. It, in turn, reflects the attitude towards the manifestation of professional duty as a sense of civic responsibility. The effectiveness of its implementation is greatly influenced by such a personal quality as the culture of thinking. It includes the ability to analyze information, self-criticism,independence, quickness and flexibility of the mind, memory, observation, etc.
In a practical sense, the culture of pedagogical thinking can be represented as a three-level system:
- Methodological thinking. This is the first level, which is determined by the professional beliefs of the teacher. They allow him to quickly navigate the aspects of educational activities and develop a humanistic strategy.
- Tactical thinking. It allows you to materialize professional ideas into specific technologies of the educational process.
- Operational thinking. It is expressed in the manifestation of creative abilities in the organization of educational activities.
The most important in the structure of the culture of thinking of a teacher is the subject's awareness of his professional duty. There are a great many examples when a teacher does not understand all the responsibility that lies with him. The teacher is a role model. Therefore, even outside the school walls, no immoral, immoral, corrupting actions are unacceptable, even if they are not directed specifically at children and look completely harmless. Being an educator is no easy task.
Awareness can be achieved through reflection, due to the analysis of the process of implementing educational activities.
Formation of pedagogical duty
As a means of ensuring the readiness of the teacher to perform tasks and responsibility for their actions, an integral education system acts. Currentlypedagogical activity is carried out on the basis of the principles of democratization, continuity, being one of the mechanisms for the formation of individual qualities of schoolchildren. Given this, many experts believe that the acquisition of a sense of professional duty should be of a systemic nature and include 4 components:
- Motivational. It provides the desire, the motivation of the person to fulfill his pedagogical duty.
- Cognitive. He ensures the accumulation and systematization of the knowledge necessary for the performance of his duty.
- Very strong-willed. Due to it, the debt is realized in a specific behavioral act.
- Reflexive. It involves self-analysis of the effectiveness of the activities carried out, as well as the difficulties that appear in the process.
Among the above elements, the leading place is occupied by the cognitive element. Knowledge about the consequences of the performance or non-performance of professional duties by a teacher is due to his motives, emotions, feelings, which are associated with the concept of duty. Awareness of specific ways of implementing the tasks set, possible difficulties, methods of overcoming them are determined by the volitional regulation of the teacher's behavior in a particular situation. The cognitive component, of course, has a close relationship with the rest of the elements. It follows from this that in the course of training teachers, the main emphasis should be placed on him.
Features of pedagogical duty
The deeper the teacher realizes his responsibility, themore freely he chooses his actions and actions in accordance with moral ideals.
Unlike the professional debt of people employed in other areas, pedagogical debt has a number of features:
- The complex of his requirements reflects the interests of all members of society.
- Incentives and motives for doing the right thing are largely the same.
- The interests of the members of society merge with the interests of the teacher himself. At the same time, the demands made by society on the teacher become his internal motives and motivations.
- Pedagogical duty reflects the moral values that determine the nature of the teacher's behavior.
Specific implementation of professional duty: real-life examples
In pedagogical practice, situations are not uncommon when teachers try to honestly fulfill their duty, but due to certain circumstances, the results obtained by them turn out to be unequal. As a result, a conflict arises between society and a particular individual: society gives a person an unsatisfactory assessment. Let's look at a few situations.
Recently, more and more parents are dissatisfied with the work of the teacher. Although the teacher is aware of the requirements of professional duty, he does not want to fulfill them for one reason or another. There is an openly negative attitude towards teaching. In such situations, it is advisable to apply not only public influence, but also administrative measures.
Very often there is another situation: the teacher knows perfectly well what exactly the duty is, realizesthe need to fulfill the requirements, but he does not have the willpower to work on himself qualitatively and bring all the work that has been started to its logical conclusion. In such cases, the team comes to the rescue. You can help the teacher by tightening the requirements for him.
It is quite difficult to find a solution to a conflict caused by temporary difficulties that objectively impede the performance of duties. For example, many teachers do not have comfortable housing, some are forced to take care of a sick or elderly relative, etc. Nevertheless, as practice shows, in a well-coordinated team there is always a way to solve such problems.
Debt Functioning Mechanism
One of the key requirements imposed by society on a modern teacher is the need for constant replenishment of knowledge. Studies show that debt motivates teachers to work hard to improve their professionalism, even if it is limited in time. The fulfillment of the tasks assigned to the teacher requires a high pedagogical culture and skill, efficiency, composure, the ability to find everything necessary for work in an increasing information flow.
Professional duty is a certain self-restraint aimed at achieving professional success and personal fulfillment. Defining the essence of this concept, most domestic researchersconsider it as a mandatory functionally significant personal quality of a teacher. It reflects the optimal variant of the person's labor behavior, due to the requirements arising from the essence of the pedagogical activity itself.
Now you understand the meaning of professional duty.