Wireless data transmission: types, technology and devices

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Wireless data transmission: types, technology and devices
Wireless data transmission: types, technology and devices

Thanks to progress, we have received many devices and devices that make our lives easier, which function through the invention of new technologies. A breakthrough in the field of communications was not only the transmission of information via a wireless channel, but also the synchronization of various kinds of devices in the absence of a wired connection.

What is wireless data transmission?

The answer to this question is simple: BPD is the transfer of information from one device to another, which are located at a certain distance, without a wired connection.

The technology of transmitting voice information over a radio channel began to be used at the end of the 19th century. Since then, a large number of radio communication systems have appeared, which have become used in the manufacture of equipment for the home, office or business.

There are several ways to synchronize devices for data transfer. Each of them is used in a specific area and has individual properties. Wireless transmission networksdata differ in their characteristics, so the minimum and maximum distance between devices, depending on the type of information transmission technology, will be different.

To synchronize devices over the air, special adapters are installed that are capable of sending and receiving information. Here we can talk about both a small module that is built into a smartphone, and an orbiting satellite. The receiver and transmitter can be different types of devices. Transmission is carried out through channels of different frequencies and ranges. Let us dwell in more detail on the specifics of the implementation of different types of wireless synchronization.

Classification of wireless channels

Depending on the nature of the transmission medium, there are four types of wireless data transmission.

Wireless communication channels

Cellular radio channels

Data is transmitted wirelessly from transmitter to receiver. The transmitter generates a radio pulse of a certain frequency and amplitude, the oscillation is radiated into space. The receiver filters and processes the signal, after which the necessary information is extracted. Radio waves are partially absorbed by the atmosphere, so this communication may be distorted by high humidity or rain. Mobile communication works precisely on the basis of radio wave standards; wireless data transmission channels differ in information transfer speed and operating frequency range. The radio frequency category of data transmission includes Bluetooth, a technology for wireless data exchange between devices. ATRussia uses the following protocols:

  • GSM. This is a global cellular communication system. Frequency - 900/1800 MHz, maximum data transfer rate - 270 Kbps.
  • CDMA. This standard provides the best communication quality. Operating frequency - 450 MHz.
  • UMTS. It has two operating frequency bands: 1885-2012 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz.

Satellite channels

This method of transmitting information is to use a satellite on which an antenna with special equipment is installed. The signal comes from the subscriber to the nearest ground station, then the signal is redirected to the satellite. From there, the information is sent to the receiver, another ground station. Satellite communications are used to provide television and radio broadcasting. A satellite phone can be used at any point remote from cellular stations.

Infrared channels

Communication is established between the receiver and the transmitter, which are at a close distance from each other. Such a channel for wireless data transmission works by means of LED radiation. Communication can be two-way or broadcast.

Laser channels

The principle of operation is the same as in the previous version, only a laser beam is used instead of LEDs. Objects must be in close proximity to each other.

Wireless transmission media differ in their specifics. The main distinguishing features are the range and scope.

Technologies and standardswireless data transmission

Information technology is currently developing at a rapid pace. It is now possible to transmit information using radio waves, infrared or laser radiation. This method of information exchange is much more convenient than the wired type of synchronization. The range will differ depending on the technology.

Standards and technologies for wireless data transmission

Here are some examples:

  • Personal Area Networks (WPAN). Peripheral equipment is connected using these standards. Using wireless mice and keyboards is much more convenient than wired counterparts. The wireless data transfer speed is quite high. Personal networks allow you to equip smart home systems, synchronize wireless accessories with gadgets. Bluetooth and ZigBee are examples of PAN technologies.
  • Local Area Networks (WLANs) are based on 802.11 products. The term Wi-Fi is now known to everyone. This name was originally given to products of the 802.11 standard series, and now this term refers to products of any standard from this family. WLAN networks are able to create a larger working radius compared to WPAN, and the level of protection has also increased.
  • Urban scale networks (WMAN). Such networks work on the same principle as Wi-Fi. A distinctive feature of this wireless data transmission system is a wider range of territories; a larger number can connect to this network.receivers. WMAN is the same Wi Max technology that provides broadband connectivity.
  • Wide Area Networks (WWAN) - GPRS, EDGE, HSPA, LTE. Networks of this type can operate on the basis of packet data or circuit switching.

Differences in the technical characteristics of networks determine the scope of their application. If we consider the general properties of wireless networks, then we can distinguish the following categories:

  • corporate networks - used to connect objects within the same company;
  • operator networks - are created by telecom operators to provide services.

If we consider wireless data transfer protocols, then we can distinguish the following categories:

  1. IEEE 802.11a, b, n, g, y. These protocols are usually combined under the common marketing name Wi-Fi. Protocols differ in communication range, operating frequency range and data transfer rate.
  2. IEEE 802.15.1. Within the framework of the standard, data is transmitted via Bluetooth technology.
  3. IEEE 802.15.4. Standard for wireless synchronization via ZigBee technology.
  4. IEEE 802.16. Telecommunication technology standard WiMax, which is characterized by a wide range. WiMax is functionally similar to LTE technology.

Currently, 802.11 and 802.15.1 are the most popular of all wireless data transfer protocols. Based on these protocols, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies operate.


Access point, as is the case withWi-Fi can be any device equipped with a special controller that forms a piconet around itself. This piconet can include several devices, if desired, they can be combined into bridges for data transmission.

Some computers and laptops already have a built-in Bluetooth controller, if this function is not available, then USB adapters are used that connect to the device and give it the ability to transmit data wirelessly.

Bluetooth - wireless data transmission technology

Bluetooth uses a frequency of 2.4 GHz, while the power consumption is as low as possible. It was this indicator that allowed technology to occupy its niche in the field of information technology. The low power consumption is due to weak transmitter power, short range and low data rate. Despite this, these characteristics turned out to be sufficient for the connection and operation of various kinds of peripheral equipment. Bluetooth technology has given us a wide variety of wireless accessories: headphones, speakers, mice, keyboards and more.

There are 3 classes of Bluetooth receivers:

  • 1st grade. The range of wireless synchronization can reach 100 m. Devices of this type are used, as a rule, on an industrial scale.
  • 2nd grade. The range is 10 m. Devices of this class are the most common. Most wireless accessories fall into this category.
  • 3rd grade.Range - 1 meter. Such receivers are placed in game consoles or in some headsets when it makes no sense to move the transmitter and receiver apart.

The Bluetooth wireless transmission system is very convenient for device communication. The cost of chips is quite low, so equipping the equipment with a wireless connection does not greatly affect the price increase.


Along with Bluetooth, Wi-Fi has become equally ubiquitous in the field of wireless communications technology. However, popularity did not come to her immediately. The development of Wi-Fi technology began in the 80s, but the final version was presented only in 1997. Apple has decided to use the new option on its laptops. This is how the first network cards appeared in the iBook.

Wi-Fi - wireless data transmission technology

The principle of operation of Wi-Fi technology is as follows: a chip is embedded in the device, which can provide reliable wireless synchronization with another of the same chip. If there are more than two devices, then you need to use an access point.

A Wi-Fi hotspot is a wireless analogue of a stationary router. Unlike the latter, the connection is carried out without the participation of wires, by means of radio waves. This makes it possible to connect several devices at once. Do not forget that when using a large number of devices, the data transfer rate will be significantly reduced. To protect your network data, Wi-Fi access points secureencryption. It will not be possible to connect to such a data source without entering a password.

The first standard for Wi-Fi technology was adopted in 1997, but it never got widespread because the data transfer rate was too low. Later came the 802, 11a and 802, 11b standards. The first gave a transfer rate of 54 Mb / s, but worked at a frequency of 5 GHz, which is not allowed everywhere. The second option allowed networks to transmit data at a maximum speed of 11 Mb / s, which was not enough. Then came the standard 802, 11g. He combined the advantages of previous options, providing a fairly high speed at an operating frequency of 2.4 GHz. The 802, 11y standard is an analogue of 802, 11g, it has a long network coverage distance (up to 5 km in open space).


This standard is currently the most promising along with other global networks. Mobile broadband provides the highest wireless packet data rate. With regard to the operating frequency band, everything is ambiguous. The LTE standard is very flexible, networks can be based in the frequency range from 1.4 to 20 MHz.

4th generation LTE networks

The range of networks depends on the height of the base station and can reach 100 km. The ability to connect to networks is provided by a large number of gadgets: smartphones, tablets, laptops, game consoles and other devices that support this standard. The devices must have an integrated LTE module that works in conjunction with existing standardsGSM and 3G. If the LTE connection is interrupted, the device will switch to the existing access to 3G or GSM networks without interrupting the connection.

With regard to the data transfer rate, the following can be noted: compared to 3G networks, it has increased several times and reached 20 Mbit / s. The introduction of a large number of gadgets equipped with LTE modules ensures the demand for this technology. New base stations are being installed that provide high-speed Internet access even to settlements remote from megacities.

Let's consider the principle of the fourth generation networks. The technology of wireless packet data transmission is carried out by means of the IP protocol. For fast and stable synchronization between the base station and the mobile station, both frequency and time duplex are formed. Due to the large number of combinations of paired frequency bands, broadband connection of subscribers is possible.

The spread of LTE networks has reduced tariffs for using mobile communications. The wide range of the network allows operators to save on expensive equipment.

Data communication devices

In our daily lives, we are surrounded by devices that operate on the basis of wireless data transmission technologies. Moreover, each device has several activity modules of various standards. Example: a classic smartphone uses GSM, 3G, LTE networks to transmit packet and voice data, Wi-Fi to access the Internet via an access point, Bluetooth to synchronize the device with accessories.

Wireless devices

Let's take a look at the most popular wireless data transmission devices that are ubiquitous:

  1. Wi-Fi router. This device is capable of providing Internet access to several devices. The device itself is synchronized with the Internet source by wire or using a SIM card from a mobile network operator.
  2. Smartphone. A versatile communication tool that allows you to send voice information, send short text messages, access the Internet and synchronize with wireless or wired accessories.
  3. Tablet computer. Functionally, it can be identical to a smartphone. A distinctive feature is the large screen, thanks to which the use of the gadget becomes more comfortable for certain types of work.
  4. Personal computer. A full-fledged stationary device with an integrated operating system that allows you to work on the Internet, including wireless ones. Wireless data transfer to a computer from an access point is usually carried out through a Wi-Fi adapter that connects via a USB connector.
  5. Notebook. A smaller version of the personal computer. Most laptops have built-in Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, allowing you to sync to access the Internet and connect wireless accessories without additional USB adapters.
  6. Wireless accessories and peripherals. This category includes wireless speakers, headphones, headsets, mice,keyboards and other popular accessories that connect to devices or computers.
  7. TV or Smart-TV. A TV with an operating system functionally resembles a computer, so the presence of built-in wireless modules is a must for it.
  8. Game console. To install the software, this gadget has a wireless Internet connection. The game consoles are synced with the device via Bluetooth technology.
  9. Wireless equipment "Smart home". A very complex and versatile system that is controlled wirelessly. All sensors and pieces of equipment are equipped with special modules for signal transmission.

With the improvement of wireless technology, old devices are constantly being replaced by new devices that are functionally more efficient and practical. Wireless data transmission equipment is changing and changing rapidly.

Prospects for the use of wireless networks

The current trend is to replace wired pieces of equipment with newer wireless options. It is much more convenient not only because of the mobility of the devices, but also in terms of ease of use.

The production of wireless equipment will allow not only to introduce the latest systems into the world of communication devices, but also to equip the housing of a standard average resident of any locality with the latest technology. Currently, only people with a high level of income living inmetropolitan areas.

Prospects for the development of wireless networks

The field of wireless radio communications is constantly researched, resulting in innovative technologies that differ from their predecessors in their greater productivity, reduced energy consumption and practicality of use. The result of such research is the emergence of new equipment. Manufacturers are always interested in producing products that will meet innovative technologies.

Better access points and powerful base stations will enable new technologies to be used everywhere in large enterprises. The equipment can be controlled remotely. In the field of education, wireless technologies can facilitate the process of teaching and control. Some schools are already starting to implement the process of mobile education. It consists in remote learning via video communication via the Internet. These examples are only the initial step in the transition of society to a new stage, which will be built on the basis of wireless technologies.

Wireless Sync Benefits

If you compare wired and wireless data transmission, you can identify many advantages of the latter:

  • do not interfere with wires;
  • high data rate;
  • practicality and speed of connection;
  • mobility of use of equipment;
  • no wear or broken connection;
  • It is possible to use several options for wireless connection inone device;
  • the ability to connect several devices at once to an Internet access point.

Along with this, there are some disadvantages:

  • radiation from a large number of devices can adversely affect human he alth;
  • When various wireless equipments are close together, there is a possibility of interference and communication failures.

The reasons for the widespread use of wireless networks are obvious. The need to always stay in touch is needed by any average member of modern society.

In conclusion

Wireless technologies have provided an opportunity for the widespread introduction of telecommunications equipment, which is massively used in all countries of the world. Constant improvements and new discoveries in the field of wireless communications give us an ever greater level of comfort, and home improvement with the help of innovative devices is becoming more affordable for most people.

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