What is the difference between a correctional school and a regular general education institution? In order for children with serious developmental disabilities to receive knowledge, skills, special educational institutions operate in our country.
Let's consider the main forms of work used by the correctional school.
The teacher uses a story when working with special children. Thanks to a vivid, emotional presentation of certain phenomena, events, the teacher influences the feelings and emotions of the students.
Remedial school involves the use of several options for the story, which depend on the specific pedagogical situation:
There are certain requirements for the teacher's speech:
- expressiveness, clarity, brightness;
- impeccability from the logical and phonetic side;
- correct accents, clarity of pronunciation of endings;
- slowness of speech;
- accessibility for the perception of schoolchildren.
Working with the book
Remedial school allows occasional use of the verbal method. But it is the reading of books in the primary grades that is essential, as children get acquainted with the correct, expressive speech of the teacher, which is necessary for their mental development.
The teacher invites the children to read on their own, then they answer his questions. It is important to approach this process selectively, because the children of the correctional school differ from their peers in intellectual abilities.
Most of the explanation is limited to conversation. This method involves answers to elementary questions offered by the teacher.
Correctional school allows the use of conversation at different stages of the lesson: in the water part, in the process of explaining new material, when summing up. It is accompanied by a demonstration of various subjects, independent work of schoolchildren. The teacher takes the preparation for the lessons seriously and responsibly, thinks over its topic, purpose, and also the main content.
A teacher working in correctional educational institutions must clearly and correctly formulate tasks, making them accessible to students. There should be a logical connection between the questions, they are formulated taking into account the individual capabilities of the trainees.
Conversation contributes to a more successful solution of educational and correctionaleducational task in the educational process.
Special Correctional School is closely related to visual methods:
- demonstrations of various experiences and memorable experiments;
- daily observations.
Visibility is necessary for such children, since the assimilation of the material with its help is carried out with the students' direct perception of reality.
When selecting objects for observation, the teacher thinks through:
- the sequence of their provision to schoolchildren;
- organization of the study of any object.
Demonstrations consist of a visual-sensual acquaintance of schoolchildren with phenomena, objects, processes. This method can be considered universal, since it is necessary for studying phenomena and their properties.
When demonstrating such objects, the teacher talks about color, shape, appearance, components.
In addition to natural objects, there are also symbolic, figurative visualization, graphic tools and a schematic representation.
For example, at the primary level of education, illustrative and visual means are needed: paintings, drawings, maps, graphics. At the senior level of education, teachers prefer schematic and symbolic clarity.
What else characterizes a correctional school? Mathematics in such an institution is limited to simple tasks and exercises. When organizing independent workstudents use their own perceptual experience.
When choosing and using visualization in the educational process, it is important to take into account certain requirements:
- the displayed object should be visible to students from different sides;
- it is important to choose the right stage of the lesson at which it will be shown to schoolchildren;
- demonstration of a visual object must be accompanied by a verbal description.
Some of the visual teaching methods that are suitable for use in special schools include:
- demonstration of films;
- display videos;
- viewing filmstrips;
- work at the computer.
Let's consider the main types of correctional schools that currently exist in our country.
There are several options for special educational institutions, each of which is designed for the upbringing and development of children with certain physical problems.
Different types of correctional schools function on the basis of separate educational and upbringing programs developed taking into account the physiological and mental characteristics of schoolchildren.
For example, there are institutions that are created for hearing-impaired children. In them, the educational process is represented by three levels of general education:
- at the first stage, the adaptation of children is carried out, the level of their preparation for education and upbringing is revealed; teachers are working to stimulate the desire of childrenstudy;
- in the middle level, activities are carried out to form the personality of a hearing-impaired child, his activities, improve written and oral speech, and independent work skills;
- at the second stage, work is underway aimed at preparing pupils for life in society;
- the third step involves corrective work on the formation of residual hearing, as well as activities aimed at social and labor adaptation.
Schools for visually impaired children
Correctional educational institutions of types III and IV were created to provide education, training, correction of deviations in children with visual impairments. They carry out work aimed at the preservation, development, formation of compensatory and corrective skills that contribute to the social adaptation of such children in society.