Complex system: characteristics, structure and methods of determination

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Complex system: characteristics, structure and methods of determination
Complex system: characteristics, structure and methods of determination

There are natural and artificial systems. A system consisting of other systems is considered complex. This is, for example, an apple or a tractor factory, a beehive and writing a computer program. A system can be a process, an object, a phenomenon. Information is a means of describing systems.

Recognize the necessary data and evaluate their reliability - a system of knowledge and skills. Understand and evaluate - the quality of a specialist's intellect, the effectiveness of his knowledge and skills.

Depending on the angle of view and the goal to be achieved, a wide range of solutions can be obtained. An apple and Newton is an interesting short story, but only figuratively connected with the laws of gravity. The planets fly calmly and without visible expenditure of energy, but man has not yet learned to control the system of gravitational forces. The only thing that science can do is to overcome (not use) the forces of gravity by using huge energy resources.

Simple andcomplex systems

Ameba is the simplest organism. But it is difficult to believe school textbooks. You can say: "The cobblestone on the road is not a system at all." But under a microscope, an amoeba quickly changes the mind of even a schoolboy. The life of an amoeba is eventful. A rock might be a weapon in the hands of a warrior or a hammer to crack nuts.

natural systems

Modern science claims that it is easy to detect chemicals, molecules, atoms, orbiting electrons and elementary particles in an amoeba and a cobblestone.

According to astronomers, the Earth is not the only planet in the Universe and similar ones exist in a huge system of galaxies.

All systems are simple on one level. All systems are complex once the explorer moves down a level or up a level.

Any of them is a point in space and time. Regardless of whether it is artificial or natural.

Static and dynamic

The factory building or machine bed is stationary. The mountain is less mobile than the ocean at its foot. These are always complex dynamical systems. The plant building provides the necessary functionality for the normal operation of the workforce, machines, equipment, storage of materials and finished products. The bed guarantees the normal operation of the machine mechanisms. The mountain is involved in the formation of the climate, "controls" the movement of the wind, provides food and shelter to living organisms.

An example of a natural system

Depending on the point of view and the problem being solved in any system, you canseparate static from dynamics. This is an important procedure: models of complex systems are the process of systematizing data. The correct identification of sources of information about the system, assessment of their reliability and determination of the actual meaning is extremely important for building a model on the basis of which the decision will be formed.

Let's consider an example. When building an enterprise management system, the building, machines and equipment are static. But this static requires dynamic service. According to the technical documentation, the enterprise management system will have to have a service subsystem. Along with this, a system of accounting and control for accounting, a planning and economic system will be developed. It will be necessary to determine the range of goals and objectives of the enterprise: strategy, development concept.

System structure

The purpose and structure of complex systems is the main task in modeling. There are many systems theories. You can give dozens of definitions of goals, characteristics, methods of analysis, and each will have a meaning.

There are enough authoritative specialists in systems theory to effectively solve modeling problems, but not enough to offer a conceptually complete theory of systems, their structure and methods for determining (developing) objective and reliable models.

As a rule, experts manipulate the meaning they put into terms: purpose, functionality, structure, state space, integrity, uniqueness. Graphical or block notations are used to visually build models. The text description is the main one.

Process of Understanding in Modeling

It is important to understand what a complex system is in each case. The process of understanding is the dynamics of the thinking of a specialist (team). You can not fix the purpose or structure of the system as something unshakable. Understanding the work being done is a dynamic. Everything that is understood freezes in static, but it never hurts to reconsider the understanding reached, to correct intermediate results.

A characteristic component of the structure is the range of data, their integrity, quantitative and qualitative description, internal and external methods of complex systems that they manipulate:

  • to recognize incoming information;
  • analysis and generalizations of own + external data;
  • shaping decisions.

Programming is a good example of system structure. The end of the last century was marked by the transition from the concept of classical programming to object-oriented programming.

Objects and systems of objects

Programming is a complex system of thought processes. Programming is a high skill requirement that allows you to model on a conscious level. The programmer solves a real problem. He does not have time to analyze the program code at the processor level. A programmer works with an algorithm for solving a problem - this is the level of building a model.

Classical programming is an algorithm that sequentially solves a problem. In object-oriented programming, there are only objects that have methods to interact with each other andthe outside world. Each object can have complex data structure, its own syntax and semantics.

Classical and object-oriented programming

When solving a problem through object-oriented programming, a programmer thinks in terms of objects, and a complex system in his mind appears as a collection of simpler ones. Any system consists of one or more objects. Each object has its own data and methods.

The result of the work of an "object-oriented" programmer is a system of objects and no sequential algorithm. The object system itself functions as an object. The objects that compose it fulfill only their purpose. No outside algorithm tells the complex system what to do. Especially for the objects that make it up - how to behave.

Point and point system

While solving practical problems, a specialist builds models. With experience comes the ability to see complex systems as points in space-time. These points are filled with unique and specific functionality. Systems "accept" incoming information and give the expected result.

Each point includes a system of points, which should also be interpreted as systems. The reverse procedure, when the task to be solved is represented by a system of subtasks, and therefore imposes a relatively systematized set of separated functions on the specialist, will necessarily lead to inconsistencies in the solution.

System Integrity

There is only one beginning in any system, only itcan be divided into subtasks that need to be addressed. When analyzing systems, all experts use the terms:

  • uniqueness;
  • systematic;
  • independence;
  • relationship of "internal functionality";
  • system integrity.

The first and last are the most important to apply at any stage of your modeling work. Any complex system is a holistic unique composition of subsystems. It doesn't matter which subsystems are included in the system. The main thing is that at each level there is integrity and uniqueness of functionality. Only focusing on the integrity and uniqueness of the system, as well as each of its subsystems, it is possible to build an objective model of the task (system).

Knowledge and skills

The common phrase "no one is indispensable" is hopelessly outdated. Even simple work can be done intelligently with less effort, saving time and money.

Modeling and solving intellectual problems is an unconditional requirement of high qualification. Both the simulation of a real system and the solution of the problem depend on the specialist. Different specialists will do their job in their own way. The results can differ only if the simulation is not objective and the process of solving the problem is not executed accurately.

Expert knowledge and skills

Serious theoretical training, practical experience and the ability to think systematically determine the result of solving each problem. With an objective approach, each of them gives an accurate result, regardless of which specialist did the work.

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