School education includes a variety of teaching methods, the purpose of which is to maximize the assimilation of knowledge by students. However, teachers and methodologists are still concerned about the question of how to effectively teach the younger generation. That is why the introduction of various innovations is positively perceived in order to successfully implement this process.
Extractive learning mode
Communication between student and teacher at school has always been divided into passive and active. And only recently has an interactive learning technology emerged.What is each of these methods?
With the passive model, the student masters the material only from the words of the teacher, as well as the material given in the textbooks. In such a lesson, the main character is the teacher. Students are just passivelisteners. Communication between students and the teacher with this method is carried out through control or independent work, tests, and surveys. This model in education is traditional and continues to be used by teachers. An example of such training are lessons conducted in the form of lectures. At the same time, students do not perform any creative tasks.
At the present stage of school development, the passive mode of learning becomes irrelevant. Active methods are beginning to be used more widely. They are a form of interaction between a teacher and students, in which both sides of the educational process communicate with each other. Students are by no means passive listeners. They become active participants in the lesson, having equal rights with the teacher. This stimulates the cognitive activity of children and their independence. At the same time, the role of creative tasks increases in the process of obtaining knowledge. In addition, if the authoritarian style dominates with the passive method, then with the active method it turns into a democratic one.
However, this model also has some drawbacks. When using it, students are subjects of learning only for themselves. Children communicate with the teacher, but do not conduct a dialogue with each other. Thus, the active learning method has a one-sided focus. It is relevant when using technologies of self-learning, self-development, self-education and conducting independent activities. At the same time, the active mode does not teach children to share knowledge. He does not allow to gain experience of interaction in the group.
There are also modern interactive learning technologies. With this technique, the entire lesson takes place in the mode of dialogue or conversation with someone. Active and interactive learning technologies have much in common. Some even put an equal sign between them.
However, the interactive method focuses on the broad interaction of schoolchildren not only with the teacher, but also among themselves. What is the place of the teacher in such a lesson? He directs the activity of students to fulfill the tasks assigned to the class. Thus, interactive learning technology is nothing but a modern form of the active method.
The very word "interactive" came into Russian from English. Its literal translation means "mutual" (inter) and "act" (act). The concept of "interactive" expresses the ability to be in a state of dialogue, conversation, or interact with someone (for example, with a person), as well as with something (computer). Thus, an innovative form of learning is a dialogue in which interaction takes place.
Organization of interactive mode
The innovative form of knowledge presentation is designed to create the most comfortable conditions for students. Interactive learning technologies at school involve such an organization of the lesson when various life situations are simulated and role-playing games are used. In this case, the general solution of the question posed is taken onbased on the analysis of the proposed situations and circumstances.
Information flows penetrate the minds of students and activate brain activity. Of course, interactive learning technology requires a complete change in the existing structure of the lesson. In addition, such a regime is impossible without the experience and professionalism of the teacher himself.
In the structure of a modern lesson, the technology of interactive teaching methods, which is specific techniques, should be applied to the maximum. When using them, the acquisition of knowledge will be more interesting and rich.
So what is interactive learning technology in a preschool educational institution? These are such techniques when the student constantly reacts to the objective and subjective relations of the educational system, periodically entering into its composition as an active element.
The importance of innovative forms of education
For the educational process, the legislation of the Russian Federation has fixed the principle of humanization. In this regard, a review of the content of the entire learning process will be required.
The main goal of the school process is the holistic development of the child's personality in the implementation of independent mental and cognitive activity. And this is fully facilitated by modern interactive technologies. When applying them, the student independently follows the path to knowledge and assimilates them to a greater extent.
The technology of interactive teaching methods is designed to:
- activate individual mental processes of students;
-awaken the student's internal dialogue;
- ensure an understanding of the information that served as the subject of exchange;
- individualize pedagogical interaction;
- bring the child to a position where he will become the subject of learning; - provide two-way communication in the process of exchanging information between students.
Pedagogical technologies of interactive learning set the teacher the task of facilitating and supporting the process of obtaining knowledge. It is important:
- reveal the diversity of points of view;
- refer to the personal experience of the participants in the dialogue;
- support the activity of schoolchildren;
- combine practice with theory;
- contribute to the mutual enrichment of the participants' experience;
- facilitate the perception and assimilation of the task;- encourage children's creativity.
Technologies for organizing interactive learning are the most advanced today. Their essence is reduced to the transfer of information not in a passive, but in an active mode, using the method of creating problem situations. The task of the lesson is not to transfer ready-made knowledge to schoolchildren or to direct them to overcome difficulties on their own. Interactive learning technology differs from other existing methods in a reasonable combination of the child's own initiative with the pedagogical management of the lesson. All this contributes to the achievement of the main goal of education - the creation of a comprehensive and harmoniously developed personality.
Positive aspects of the method
Using interactive learning technologiesallows:
- increase the efficiency of the exchange of information of a managerial, educational and educational nature; - students exercise self-control, applying the acquired knowledge in practice.
In addition, interactive learning technology contributes to the speedy mental development of the child. In addition, the exchange of information between students and the teacher increases the child's confidence in the correctness of his conclusions.
Features of the organization
The use of interactive learning technologies occurs with the direct interaction of students with the learning environment. It acts as a reality in which children gain experience, which is the central activator of learning cognition.
In ordinary passive or active learning, the teacher is assigned the role of a kind of filter. He is forced to pass through himself all the educational information. Unlike these traditional methods, interactive learning provides for the role of the teacher as an assistant to the student, activating the flow of information.
Interactive learning models, compared to traditional ones, change the interaction between the student and the teacher. The teacher yields his activity to the children, creating conditions for the manifestation of their initiative. Schoolchildren are full participants in such lessons. At the same time, their experience is just as important as the experience of a teacher who does not provide ready-made knowledge, but encourages his students to search.
The role of the teacher
Technology for the development of interactive learning assumes that the teacher performs several tasks in the lesson. One of them is to act as an expertinformant. To do this, it is necessary to prepare and present textual material, demonstrate a video sequence, answer questions from the participants in the lesson, track the results of the learning process, etc.
Also, in interactive learning, the teacher is assigned the role of an organizer-facilitator. It consists in establishing the interaction of schoolchildren with the physical and social environment. To do this, the teacher divides the children into subgroups, coordinates the execution of the tasks given to them, encourages them to independently search for answers, etc.
The role of the teacher in interactive learning also involves the performance of the functions of a consultant. The teacher not only refers to the already accumulated experience of the students, but also helps them in finding solutions to the tasks.
Types of interactive technologies
For the effective presentation of knowledge in lessons using an innovative method, the teacher uses:
-work in small groups, dividing students into pairs, triples, etc.;
- carousel technique;
- heuristic conversations;
- lectures, the presentation of which is problematic;
- brainstorming technique;
- business games;
- conferences; - seminars in the form of debates or discussions;
- multimedia facilities;
- full cooperation technologies;- project method, etc.
Let's take a closer look at some of them.
This is one of the most effective means of interactive learning, awakening a keen interest in the subject. Childrenlove to play. And this need must be used to solve educational and educational problems.
Business games for students should be carefully prepared and thought out by the teacher. Otherwise, they will be inaccessible to children and tiresome for them.
Business games in the lesson contribute to:
- increasing interest in learning, as well as in the problems played out and modeled in the classroom;
- the possibility of an adequate analysis of a particular situation;
- the assimilation of large information volumes; - development of analytical, innovative, economic and psychological thinking.
Business games are classified according to:
- gaming environment (desktop, computer, television, technical);
- areas of activity (social, intellectual, physical, psychological, labor);
- techniques (role-playing, plot, subject, simulation);- the nature of the pedagogical process (cognitive, educational, diagnostic, generalizing, developing, training).
Interactive technologies for teaching a foreign language often use role-playing games. They can be dramatic or entertaining. At the same time, the participants in such a game are assigned one or another role that children play either according to a pre-created plot or guided by the internal logic of the environment. This allows you to:
- develop thinking by means of the foreign language being studied;
- increase motivation for the subject;
- ensure the student's personal growth;- improve the ability to communicate kindly and actively betweenyourself.
Work in pairs or groups
This method is also popular when teaching a lesson on the interactive method. Working in pairs or groups allows all students (even the most shy) to practice interpersonal relationships and collaboration skills. In particular, this finds expression in the ability to listen and calmly resolve all disagreements that arise.
Groups or pairs can be formed by the students themselves, but more often the teacher does it. At the same time, the teacher takes into account the level of students and the nature of their relationship, and also sets the most clear tasks for them, writing them down on cards or on the board. He also gives the group enough time to complete the task.
This interactive technology was borrowed from psychological trainings. Children usually love this type of work very much. To implement this technique, students form two rings: external and internal. The first of them is the students who, every 30 seconds, gradually move in a circle. The inner ring is made up of motionless sitting children, carrying on a dialogue with those who are opposite them. For thirty seconds, a discussion of a particular issue takes place, when each of the students tries to convince the interlocutor that he is right. The "Carousel" method when learning a foreign language allows you to work out the topics "In the theater", "Acquaintance", "Conversation on the street", etc. The guys talk with great enthusiasm, and the whole lesson is not only dynamic, but also very effective.
In the process of conducting an interactive lesson, this method allows you to quickly solve the problem posed to the class, taking into account the maximum use of the creative activity of schoolchildren. The teacher invites the participants in the discussion to put forward a large number of solutions, among which there may be the most fantastic ones. After that, the most successful ones are selected from all the ideas, which will allow answering the question posed.
As you can see, there are a wide variety of interactive learning methods. And the use of each of them makes it possible not only to develop the student's communication skills and abilities, but also to give an active impetus to the socialization of the individual, develop the ability to work in a team, and also to eliminate as much as possible the psychological tension that arises between the teacher and the children.