Lomonosov: works. Names of scientific works of Lomonosov. Scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry, in economics, in the field of literature

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Lomonosov: works. Names of scientific works of Lomonosov. Scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry, in economics, in the field of literature
Lomonosov: works. Names of scientific works of Lomonosov. Scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry, in economics, in the field of literature
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The first world-famous Russian naturalist, educator, poet, founder of the famous theory of "three calms", which later gave impetus to the formation of the Russian literary language, historian, artist - such was Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. His works are like a blazing fire in the dusk of impenetrable darkness. After all, it was he who managed to shed light on the existing gaps in the system of domestic education, making it primarily accessible not only to representatives of the upper classes, but also to peasants. Today, the famous works of Lomonosov have been translated into many languages ​​and are used in many areas. So, what works of Lomonosov are known?

Lomonosov works

Chemistry

Mikhail Vasilyevich was an ardent opponent of the irrational approach to the study of chemical phenomena. He was skeptical about the sciences of the past, which did not receive a reasonable explanation. In addition, he was against the theory of "imponderable fluids" and the importance attributed to it in explaining all sorts of physico-chemical phenomena of thattime.

Mikhail Vasilyevich began to study chemical research in his student years. He was the first who in his writings presented chemistry as a science, not an art. He carried out most of the research in the laboratory built by his decree.

According to Lomonosov, a true chemist must play two roles: both a theorist and a practitioner. In other words, to find application for their hypotheses in the relevant practical activities. According to the corpuscular philosophy he recommended, he subdivided chemical substances into the so-called "principles", "composite" and "mixed".

After obtaining the required drugs, in 1744, Lomonosov conducted a long series of studies on the splitting of s alts and metals. He divided the processes of dissolution into two groups: with the release and absorption of heat. After all, as is already known, the process of dissolution of metals in acid is characterized by the release of heat, and in the process of dissolution of s alts in water, on the contrary, it is absorbed.

The dissolution processes themselves were described by Lomonosov from the mechanical positions inherent in his era. It is also important to note that he described his observations very accurately, controlling chemical processes with a microscope with 360x magnification.

Experiments on the splitting of s alts in water served as a prerequisite for the emergence of the so-called phenomenon of solvation in aqueous solutions (hydration). Based on this phenomenon, when interacting with water, the s alt breaks up into ions, and those, in turn, are closely surrounded by macromolecules adjacent to them.water.

After some time, he publishes the teaching "On metallic brilliance", and a little later - "On the birth and nature of s altpeter".

m in Lomonosov Proceedings

M. V. Lomonosov assumed that in chemistry there are two groups of special qualities of chemical bodies. To the first group he attributed bodies that are constantly dependent on the possible interweaving of particles, to the second group - their color, crystallinity, taste, smell and other qualities.

Also, this scientist investigated the theory, on the basis of which, any color (with the exception of black) can be divided into three - yellow, red and blue.

Despite the large number of physical and chemical experiments he conducted, most of them remained unfinished. In all likelihood, the reason for this was the unique versatility of the scientist.

Scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry contributed to the formation of the necessary base for further observations. His merits in the field of physical chemistry served to form this science in Russia. Scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry contributed to such a shift in the development of this science that even after a while, much attention is paid to the personality of the scientist by his followers.

But his main achievement was the promotion of chemical literacy. The most striking example of such a slogan is the “Sermon on the Benefits of Chemistry”, which he read at the Academic Assembly in 1751.

Physics

He was rightfully considered the "father" of Russian physics. Techniques and methodological views of Lomonosov had a distinctive feature. Unlikemost of his associates, he widely used hypotheses in research and was the first to reveal the presence in nature of molecular and atomistic particles of a substance.

Lomonosov scientific works

Even in his student years, he became interested in physics, or rather, the theory of the structure of matter. In any science, he was attracted mainly by fundamental aspects of a philosophical nature.

Lomonosov was the first to suggest the existence of the so-called absolute zero temperature. Then, with the introduction of such a measuring device as a balance, he managed to substantiate the erroneous opinion about the increase in the specific gravity of metals during their firing. Such was M. V. Lomonosov. His scientific works in many ways laid a good foundation for the development of modern physics.

It was he who first formulated the assumption about the relationship between electrical and light phenomena, about vertical flows as sources of atmospheric pressure, about the electrical origin of the aurora.

The works of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov on the part of physics have become a significant contribution to this science. He devoted a lot of time to the analysis and explanation of the nature of light phenomena, as well as to the doctrine of color formation. The first who attempted to determine the relationship between the processes that exist in nature was M. V. Lomonosov. His work contributed to a tangible shift in the development of almost all areas of physics.

He devoted a lot of time to the study of electrical phenomena. At that time, the question of the existence of static electricity was almost never raised.The notions of associates about the attitude to electricity as an inexplicable mythical liquid flowing into an electrified vessel were not to the liking of the materialist Lomonosov. The scientist approached the explanation of the phenomenon of electricity in the same way as when interpreting the phenomena of light and heat. Lomonosov wrote several works devoted to the study of atmospheric and static electricity.

But Lomonosov's famous works were not limited to this. It is impossible not to mention his molecular-kinetic theory of heat, which is based on the doctrine of the organization of matter from atoms and molecules. It is described in more detail in his essay “Reflections on the Cause of Heat and Cold.”

Such questions about the nature of physical phenomena were solved by MV Lomonosov. The works and research of the scientist in the field of physics served to ensure that at the beginning of the twentieth century, physics became the leading science in the field of natural science.

The first Russian astrophysicist

Interest in celestial phenomena arose in Lomonosov in early childhood, when he observed the majestic pictures of the auroras. He glorified himself as the first Russian astrophysicist, founder of scientific astronomical expeditions.

scientific works of Lomonosov in chemistry

Already in the first years of his professional activity, he brought to the world many discoveries in the astronomical field. He carefully observed the movement of the planets of the solar system in an astronomical observatory, studied sunspots, comets and other celestial objects - such was the famous astrophysicist Lomonosov. His scientific works andto this day are especially popular among astronomical researchers.

One of the most unique achievements of Mikhail Vasilyevich in astronomy was the identification of the climate on Venus. This discovery was the result of scientists' final observations of the rarest phenomenon - the advancement of Venus across the solar disk. His scientific report was called: "The phenomenon of Venus on the Sun, observed at the St. Petersburg Imperial Mayan Academy of Sciences on the 26th day of 1761."

A little later, he vouched for the preparation of these observations and the further departure of two astronomical campaigns to Siberia. Astronomers in most European countries were preparing to contemplate this rare phenomenon. In the light of these events, the Academy of Sciences took part in an event of this magnitude for the first time. Lomonosov also conducted a series of independent observations at his observatory.

The discovery of the atmosphere on Venus has become a prerequisite for the further development of astrophysical science in Russia.

Metallurgy, mineralogy and mining

Lomonosov's main works, written on the mining craft, were a unique manual for workers in the mining industry.

The earthquake in Portugal, which claimed the lives of more than eighty thousand people, prompted him to investigate the causes and effects of earthquakes. In his writings, he described in detail the most complex process of the development of the earth's surface. Sudden movements of the earth's crust, in his opinion, could be caused by both natural causes - tremors, volcanic eruptions, landslides - and others.major natural disasters. The names of Lomonosov's scientific works on mining are familiar to every miner or metallurgist. For example, such a well-known "Word about the birth of metals from the shaking of the earth."

the main works of Lomonosov

In his writings, he systematized and described the existing hypotheses about the extraction and smelting of metals. It was he who at one time published the manual "The First Foundations of Metallurgy, or Mining". This doctrine has rightly served as a significant find in the study of the mining industry. He improved the already known principles of mining, was engaged in the development of new machines and mechanisms.

Lomonosov dreamed of conducting large-scale research activities with the involvement of other scientific representatives of our country. Based on this, all kinds of samples of ores and minerals began to be sent to the scientist from everywhere. In a word, about one hundred and twenty plants of Russia participated in the selection of the samples necessary for the study.

Unfortunately, Lomonosov failed to realize his plans. This work of his was successfully completed only years later by Academician V.M. Severgin, and the unique mineral was subsequently named lomonosovite in honor of its discoverer.

Optics

Lomonosov designed and constructed more than ten inventions in the field of optics. He devoted himself completely to science. Lomonosov did not stop until the end of his days to be engaged in the creation of instruments for night observations.

First,who designed and built the optical bathoscope was M. V. Lomonosov. His works have always aroused great interest among the public. Also, the mechanism of the “horizontoscope” he designed, a large device for observing distant objects on a horizontal surface, did not go unnoticed.

works of Lomonosov in the field of literature

Technology for the production of colored glass was also described by MV Lomonosov. These works were subsequently used in industry in the melting of colored glass, as well as in the manufacture of parts from it. Glass making was one of Lomonosov's main passions. Comprehending the mysteries of this material, Lomonosov never thought of using the results of his research for personal purposes. Mikhail Vasilyevich wanted to share the fruits of his labors with the people as soon as possible, to bring them to the benefit of the state.

Lomonosov was the most talented inventor and instrument maker, the founder of Russian theoretical optics. His works gave impetus to the further development of optical science in Russia.

Linguistics, Philology

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Russian language was full of foreign and Church Slavonic words, colloquial speech. Lomonosov was always worried about his purity and impeccability. He devoted a lot of time to describing his literary canons. The works of Lomonosov in literature gave rise to the notorious "Rhetoric", the publication of which seemed to be an important cultural event of that time. In this work, a linguist mentioned that speaking to an audiencethe lecturer needs to pay attention to the age of the listeners, their gender, upbringing and level of education. The rhetor's speech itself should be understandable, meaningful, reasoned and emotional. "Rhetoric" was presented in plain language and intended for the general public.

works of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov

Another colossal work by Lomonosov called "Russian Grammar" became the first of its kind to study the grammar of the Russian language. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov was the first to attempt to identify the articulation norms of the Russian language. His works were aimed at increasing the importance of the native language, at concentrating the spiritual heritage.

While still a student, he wrote the essay "Letter on the Rules of Russian Poetry", where he described the basics of Russian versification, examined the known forms of poetry and sizes.

A late and mature essay en titled "Foreword on the Usefulness of Church Books in the Russian Language" considers Lomonosov's teaching on the "Three Calms" which includes "high, mediocre and low calm". Each belongs to a specific literary genre:

  • poems about heroism, odes, solemn speeches correspond to a high "calm";
  • theatrical scripts, friendly letters - medium;
  • low "calm" characterizes direct everyday conversations, songs, ballads.

Lomonosov is rightfully considered the creator of the Russian scientific and technical terminology. Scientists have introduced many new formulations,a style of scientific explanation of the material was created. The works of Lomonosov in the field of literature are very diverse: these are poems, and odes, solemn speeches, tragedies and much more. Most of the poetic heritage is occupied by odes written in honor of an event or person.

Geography and meteorology

Lomonosov developed an interest in geography at the beginning of his professional career. For many decades, he was interested in the Northern Sea Route and the possibility of studying it. In a manual titled "A Brief Description of Various Voyages in the Northern Seas and an Indication of a Possible Passage by the Siberian Ocean to the East Indies," he gives a description of such a passage and prepares its plan himself.

Lomonosov even promised to supply the members of the expedition with the necessary devices, tools, but he was not destined to see the results of the expedition. The campaign took place in 1765, when Mikhail Vasilyevich was no longer alive.

works of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov

Traveling in the polar ice, according to Lomonosov, has always been hampered by "ice mountains in the northern seas", which have worried the scientist for a long time. They were presented with the characteristics of polar ice, explained the possible causes of occurrence. These considerations are still relevant today. Inspired by the opportunity to comprehend the Northern Sea Route, the geographer set about compiling a map of the Arctic Ocean.

Most of his assumptions were confirmed only after two hundred years. Lomonosov predictedthe location of the underwater ridge, which was subsequently found and explored. Subsequently, this ridge is named after its discoverer.

Lomonosov made an invaluable contribution to the formation of the domestic "atmospheric physics". Works on "Phenomena of the air, from electric force occurring" talk about possible meteorological phenomena. With special respect, Mikhail Vasilievich treated the weather forecasts, insisted on the need to establish a network of weather stations.

History

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, interest in Russian history began to grow in Russia. M.V. Lomonosov also played an important role in the development of historical teaching.

He was interested in the further development of the Old Russian state. Having timely studied the sources and modern periodicals, Lomonosov questioned the assumptions of historians that the Normans laid the foundation for our state.

Lomonosov believed that the outsiders were Slavs, and the great-power state began with them. Mikhail Vasilyevich made assertions that the Russian-speaking people, even before Rurik came to power, had come a long way in the development and formation of an original culture.

In 1751, Lomonosov set to work on a large-scale study "Ancient Russian History". Part One was released only after his death and was soon translated into many languages.

In 1760, taking chronicles and other significant historical documents as a basis, Mikhail Vasilievich released a “Brief Russian Chronicler with Genealogy”, containing an inventory of noisy epochal events,from the reign of Rurik to the death of Peter the Great.

Mikhail Vasilyevich loved his homeland, he firmly believed in the strength and unity of his great people.

Lomonosov's works in literature

Lomonosov's work in economics

Lomonosov was one of those who saw Russia as a state with a teeming culture and a high level of education. Such a state, according to the reformer, should be in constant change, it should tirelessly step forward, move towards the development of a strong and independent power.

He was most interested in metallurgy and the mining industry. Among other things, Lomonosov showed a lot of attention to the development of agriculture and was a supporter of population growth.

The material well-being of the Russian state, according to Lomonosov, depends entirely on the performance of its economic functions.

Mikhail Lomonosov's special works in economics are poorly preserved, which greatly complicates the study of his economic views.

Based on existing work, we can conclude that Lomonosov's main attention was directed to the study of the Russian economy. For the benefit of society, a full-fledged economic strategy of the state was developed, illustrated by a set of practical guidelines.

It is to him, Lomonosov, that we should be grateful for the emergence of such a discipline as "Economic Geography". Throughout his professional career, Lomonosov followed the traditions of the Russianeconomic school, greatly enriched and strengthened its position, despite the fact that many of the main works of Lomonosov did not have the necessary impact on his contemporaries. Nevertheless, the economic ideas laid down in the works of the great scientist are still subject to further reflection.

what works of Lomonosov

And finally

The "loud" names of Lomonosov's works are known to each of his followers from one or another scientific field. His messages reflect the strength, unity and wisdom of the Russian people. Lomonosov was known as an innovator who made an outstanding contribution to various fields of knowledge - from the natural sciences to astronomy. His works were translated into many languages ​​during his lifetime. Mikhail Vasilyevich strove to serve for the good of the people. Many of his inventions and research have served as a solid foundation for the development of today's science as a whole.

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